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Translation Studies

ceviribilimThe phenomenon of translation came about as a result of the emergence of different languages in human history, and being as old as history itself, it has posed a constant need for humanity. All kinds of human social activities, from ensuring communication between peoples that speak different languages to the interaction between different cultures and civilizations in remote parts of the world, become possible through oral and written translation. Translation is a practice known to have always existed, and throughout history, various views have been held as to how it should be done; it's becoming an acknowledged field of science in the academic world occurred in the second half of the 20th century. The first translation departments in Turkey were opened in the 1980s under the name of "Translation and Interpreting".

The phenomenon of translation can also be described as a communicative tool between languages and cultures, and as a field of science, it is closely related to the fields of language learning, linguistics, and literature. As translations are required for a variety of subjects it becomes necessary for translation curricula to come into contact and interact with a wide range of sciences and academic fields such as law, economics, history, literature, and medicine. Placing huge emphasis on multilingualism, multiculturalism, and multidisciplinarity, translation is a gateway to all disciplines and serves as a hub of interaction for societies living in different lands and their cultures.

Why Department of Translation and Interpreting in Turkey?

Turkey is a country that underwent a process of modernization in the 20th century by means of a translation movement launched under the auspices of the government in the 1940s. Getting a university education in the field of translation and interpreting bears a particular significance in Turkey since it has opened up to the world more and more through the steps it has taken in the recent years. Every year, millions of pages are translated as part of the acquis communautaires of the European Union as well as for international companies.

The main goal of the undergraduate education given in the various language programs as part of the curriculum of Translation and Interpreting is to train translators and interpreters who have a great command of a second language in addition to Turkish and who are experts in communication with a competent grasp of the cultures of both languages. The program aims for its graduates, who have completed their training in written and oral translation, to be equipped with theoretical and critical knowledge of the field of translation, the ability to take an analytic approach to problems pertaining to language and communication, and with practical experience in translation. The ideal standard set before the students of this department is to acquire at least one more foreign language besides English sufficiently well as to be able to perform translation using it, and to be acquainted with issues and terminology in the areas of politics, economics, literature, history, and law as well as all other social disciplines.

Education of Translation and Interpreting in Turkey

The departments that provide education on foreign languages in Turkish universities can be divided into three main categories: Departments of teaching in education faculties, language and literature departments in faculties of letters, and translation and interpreting departments usually gathered under the umbrella of Translation and Interpreting. At the undergraduate level, translation and interpreting departments in Turkey provide programs primarily in western languages such as German, English, and French. As its distinctive quality in comparison to the other foreign language programs, translation and interpreting, given its specific position, analyzes the phenomenon of translation holistically and bases its program on the practical application of translation and interpreting.

Currently, more than 50 departments in Turkey conduct education on academic translation at the undergraduate level in German, English, French, Russian, Bulgarian, Chinese, Arabic, and Persian. Translation and interpreting departments select their students with a test that measures their proficiency level in the language they will be studying. Some departments accept students based on a different foreign language score and teach the language of the program with a one-year preparatory course. Master's and doctoral programs accept students in three foreign languages (German, English, and French). These students may have graduated from different departments. Some departments also have a quota for international students, and these foreign nationals with an undergraduate degree obtained from outside Turkey can enroll in these programs. One of the foremost objectives of master's and doctoral education is to train researches and academics in the field of translation and interpreting, which is still a fledgling science.

The courses taught in the Department of Translation and Interpreting are principally aimed at cultivating a consciousness of language and culture acquisition both for Turkish and the second language being taught. In addition, theoretical and practical courses are part of the program. These are mostly comparative lingual-textual-cultural analyses for the aim of translation, the theory of translation, and those that endow the students with the basic translation skills required. The students take a number of common translation courses usually until the end of the second year, and then they are particularly trained in written and oral translation for their chosen field of specialization (e.g. law, economics etc). Among the courses given in the second half of their education are translations in specific areas, technical translation, intralinguistic translation (rewording), literary translation, specialized knowledge and translation, and translation criticism.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

It is a prerequisite for a student willing to study in the department of translation and interpreting to have a sufficient command of Turkish and the language, in which the program is conducted, be able to produce texts in both, and also have a good knowledge of the culture of each language.

Owing to the theoretical and practical education they have received, the graduates of translation and interpreting have the possibility of working in Turkey as experts of culture and communication, and they can also work in other countries, where their second language is spoken, in any field that requires having the necessary skills for cultural communication. In addition to the fields of freelance translation, editing, or book translation, they can work as translators in private companies, translation offices, or in official institutions such as consulates or embassies that maintain relations between states and governments. Due to their qualifications and cultural and scientific knowledge, the graduates of this department can also be employed in the sectors of media, advertising, public relations, and finance, holding various positions such as manager, assistant, or secretary. The science of translation promises to train cultural experts by endowing the translator candidates with vast cultural knowledge and by cultivating in them an awareness for language and culture.

Statistics

istatistikCollecting data toward a particular end, processing these data through mathematics and programming sciences, analyzing it with graphics, charts, and other visual materials, monitoring inter-correlations of the collected data (their interrelations) and forecasting applications all fall within the remit of statistics. Statistics, in a sense, may be likened to journalism; you follow the traces of things and you reach a result, and that result is a newsworthy piece of information.What renders it different from journalism is the attempts to attain objective results based on numbers. Statistics can be defined as a theoretical science intended to be used for practical purposes.

Statistics is a science needed by almost all branches of science. Social disciplines like sociology and psychology as well as sciences such as medicine, economics, business administration, actuarial (insurance), mathematics, and physics are all in need of statistics. In addition, there are statistical authorities of all states. These institutions determine the policies of states by continuously collecting statistics and keeping reports of them, and they also function as a feedback mechanism by assessing and measuring what has been done so far in addition to what was not possible to do. For example, it is in reality through official statistical agencies that we find out about the results of population censuses, literacy rates, unemployment data, and import and export figures; information that we normally get from television or newspapers. In the light of these statistics, states may decide to implement drastic policy changes. For example, by looking at the statistics that reveal a rise in inflation a government may launch economic reforms, or it may take steps to improve health conditions by looking at the statistics showing an increase in the infant mortality rate. International institutions produce statistics on countries and prepare scorecards for them based on the gathered data. For example, human development index examines countries' attitudes toward human rights and publishes its statistical findings.

Just like states, most commercial enterprises such as research companies, banks, and stock exchanges make adjustments in their policies for the future of their own institutions by using statistics, thereby also weighing out whether their actions so far were in the right direction. Statistics is an indispensable science particularly in the field of economics.

Why Department of Statistics in Turkey?

Parallel to the great improvements it has recently achieved in the social and economic spheres, Turkey is rapidly heading towards an ambitious position in the field of higher education too. Most of our well-established universities have statistics departments. Students wishing to pursue an academic career in the science of statistics are offered masters and doctoral programs in the field.

Turkey's active and dynamic population and its performance mean that there is a great need for the science of statistics. The reason is, with every passing decade the country undergoes major changes, and these changes can be understood and evaluated through the contributions made by the science of statistics. Aware of this great need, our universities attach the due importance and attention to the statistics departments.

The Turkish Statistical Institute working under the Prime Ministry dates back to the beginning of the 19th century. Actually going back to the 14th century, Turkey's statistical experience was first formalized with the census of 1830. Turkey's growing success in the field of statistics comes from its statisticians trained in its own universities.

Statistical Training

The following subjects are taught in the statistics departments in Turkey:

The course of probability(in fact a course of mathematics), that aims at teaching theories of probability; the course of the basics of statistics that serves as an introduction to the science of statistics; the course of Calculus in which mathematical concepts such as limit, derivative, integral, and vectors that are commonly used in statistics; courses like C, or C++ that aim to teach students of statistics at least one programming language; and analytical geometry given to teach coordinate systems and its related applications. Among the courses given in addition to these are Information Technology and Applications, Report Writing Techniques, Statistical Methods, Statistical Calculations, Mathematical Statistics, Linear Algebra, Differential Equations, Data Analysis, and Regression Analysis.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

Statistics is a department for the student who loves mathematics. As is understood from the courses mentioned just above, mathematics occupies a very large space in statistics. However, statistics, as distinct from mathematics, reaches practical results since it examines concrete data through abstract tools. For example, a statistician who has obtained the unemployment rate of the last five months through a set of calculations processes the various groups of data he/she has gathered from various sectors to reach a result, analyzes them and compares them to a previous set of results. As is the case with most sciences, statistics takes patience and perseverance too. Nevertheless, statistics is an exciting and enjoyable science as it is a direction-setting field that is constantly needed.

The graduates of statistics departments have the opportunity to be employed in national and international public and private companies. In addition to public institutions, research companies, banks, stock exchanges, and in short most commercial entities comprise the essential working areas of statistics graduates.

Management

isletmeCorporations are among the major actors of the world economy by virtue of the production they materialize, the employment they provide, and of the taxes they pay. In today's world, the financial power of corporations have come to be compared with that of national economies. Also, considering the fact that many innovations are now realized on a world scale through the vital support and coordination of corporations, their importance are crystall clear in the modern economy. Moreover, the process of globalization and the consequent global economic transformations that have occurred in the last three decades have incresed the significance of understanding corporations more fully.

The main goal of the discipline of management (business administration) is to educate future entrepreneurs and managers, who have embraced modern management styles, and are open to new developments, prone to team work with efficient communicative skills, aware of the social responsibilites of the companies that they run, and who see competition as a lifestyle. Within this framework, management departments offer their students the educational programs that entail both theoretical knowledge, practical information and skills that they can use in different phases during their careers.

Why Department of Management in Turkey

The answer to the question of why one should persue higher education in management in Turkey is closely related to knowing the future economic advantages that Turkey has. That Turkey has a great potential for economic growth becomes evident when a number of advantages that she enjoys are considered, including her geographical location and geo-political position as well as the demographic projections regarding her future. And the recent economic developments that Turkey has achieved, despite the global financial crises, indicates this great potential. An important role in this economic growth has been played by entrepereneurs. Therefore, having management education in Turkey will not only offer theoretical knowledge to students, but also an opportunity to be part of this enormous potential.
On the other hand, the benefits of the management discipline that it has provided (and is expected to provide in the future) has increased the demand for this department on the part of both students and academics. This has resulted in the increase in the quality of management education in Turkey; some departments even provide world class education in this field. These positive developments are also expected to continue in the future.

Management Education in Turkey

Departments of Management entail the following sub-divisions:

The Accounting and Finance division aims to teach students from an academic and interdisciplinary perspective how to organize the financial records, which corporations have to keep for both themselves and their shareholders, in the most appropriate and ethical way

The Management and Organization division's goal is to teach students both theoretical knowledge and practical information about managing all the processes that corporations are involved with in the most efficient and useful manner for the corporation from the perspective of modern management principles.

The Production Management and Marketing division: The production of goods or services is a complex process that involves the organization of many factors, such as human resources, raw materials and the place of production etc. While the production of a commodity that the customers will like is extremely important for corporations, having this commodity reach the customer and letting them know about the existence and main features of that commodity are equally important. Thus, this sub-division of management aims to teach, from an academic disciplinary perspective, all the details regarding the production process of a corporation and the marketing of the commodity.

The Quantitative Methods division aims to teach the students the quantitative research methods required for measurement and evaluation in all the processes of corporations, including particularly the planning process.

The Cooperative System division entails the teaching of theoretical knowledge and practical application in the establishment and management of cooperatives, which are defined as commercial organizations founded for the benefit of their shareholders.

The Commercial Law division: All activities undertaken by corporations are complex processes that involve many different stakeholders. For this reason, both the corporations and stakeholders have certain rights and responsibilities vis-a-vis each other that are sanctioned by different laws. This division thus aims to teach the legal regulations that both corporations and stakeholders need to work, on both national and international scales.

Essential and Desired Qualities, and Job Opportunities

One of the essential goals of the management departments is to educate future entrepreneurs and managers, which require students to have active personalities with a great potential to communicate with others effectively. In addition to these commucative skills, management students also need to have a sound basis in mathematics, which are needed in all the processes of management, in order to successfully complete this program.

Graduates of management departments can find jobs in many different commercial organizations, including particularly banks, financial institutions, accounting auditing firms, the capital market mediator institutions, management consultation firms, and marketing companies. Moreover, their background in managerial training will help them find jobs in civil society organizations. They also have the opportunity to work in public institutions as well as in the private sector. Finally, those students who continue to Master's or PhD level education may also choose a career in the academic sector.

Psychology

psychologyPsychology is the study of human behavior and mind, and is among the sciences of critical importance in understanding human beings. Scientific experiments play a major role in making sense of human behavior and in researching the reasons that underlie it. Scientific psychological experiments may be carried out on both humans and animals. While in the past some ethical issues regarding the conduction of these experiments arose from time to time, the psychologists of today always abide by a set of ethical rules in their experiments. One of the aims of psychology is to understand the mental health of human beings, and thus to improve and develop it. Psychology also analyzes animal behavior just as it examines human behavior.

Why Department of Psychology in Turkey?

Turkey has recently experienced major advances in social and economic fields. Similar developments are taking place in the field of higher education. In our country, many long-established state universities and private universities have psychology departments and a large number of students graduate from these departments each year.

There is no doubt that wherever there are human beings, there is [a need for] the science of psychology. Turkey's growing population as well as all the concomitant social, political and economic changes being experienced to a remarkable degree, affects the psychology of the individuals living in the country. These changes have increased the need for psychological research. Psychology plays an important role in both understanding people and enhancing the quality of their lives by providing them psychological support and making them feel good about themselves. In acknowledgment of these impacts of psychology, Turkish universities recognize psychology as a [vital] discipline and a science, and endeavor to carry out all the necessary corresponding work to that end.

Psychology Education in Turkey

The undergraduate psychology education in Turkey lasts four years and is divided into four main areas. Clinical Psychology deals with the mental health of human beings and focuses on improving and developing it. Cognitive Psychology examines the working patterns of the human mind. It tries to explain the mechanisms of perception, sensation, memory, thinking, learning, reasoning and decision-making and is in constant interaction with neuroscience. Developmental Psychology examines human development from infancy onwards. When examining progressive human development, it takes into account the social and emotional aspects of the individuals, and it concentrates on their cognitive and physiological sides as well. Social Psychology recognizes humans as social beings, and studies the influence of the society on human behavior. In this sense, Social Psychology is in close contact with sociology. It examines how people relate to each other, basing this examination on the attitudes of the individuals in society and their perceptions of themselves.

In their freshman year, psychology students take introductory courses to psychology as well as other courses from areas related to psychology such as philosophy, biology, human history, mathematics, and sociology. In the second year, fundamental courses from Cognitive Psychology and Learning and Developmental Psychology become part of the curriculum. In the third and fourth years, the fundamental courses given are Research Methods, Experimental Psychology and Psychology Theories. In addition, students begin taking courses in the field of Clinical Psychology. Therapies in Clinical Psychology, Abnormal Psychology, Health Psychology and Family Psychology are among the courses in this area.

A bachelor's degree in psychology provides only a general framework on psychology, and therefore the graduates wishing to specialize in any one of the subbranches of psychology are required to do a master's degree. Many universities offer masters and doctoral programs in psychology to graduates who wish to further their academic studies. In particular those who are determined to be an expert in the field of Clinical Psychology may qualify for becoming one only upon the completion of a master's program in Clinical Psychology.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

The individuals who want to study the science of psychology first and foremost must be curious about human nature and behavior. Achieving medium success in high school in mathematics and science courses, but higher scores in social sciences will facilitate the student candidates while studying psychology at the undergraduate level. For instance, biology, genetics and neuroscience from among the physical sciences are in constant interaction with psychology. Mathematics, too, manifests itself in this field through the science of statistics. Social sciences other than psychology also conduct studies in order to make better sense of human being, which is a social creature. Therefore, those who want to study psychology must be interested in certain social disciplines such as sociology, philosophy, and history and this interest will assuredly give them a wider perspective for their future examinations into human psychology. All this shows that psychology is in close contact with physical sciences, mathematics, and a great number of other social sciences.

Graduates of psychology departments can find jobs in many public institutions, especially hospitals and schools, and in many private institutions such as counseling centers and business research companies. Finally, those who want to seek a postgraduate degree may find themselves a place in the academic world.

Law

hukukThe history of law parallels human history because the latter is a social being. This is well illustrated by the saying "wherever there is society, there is law." What makes training in law indispensible both historically and today is this parallelism. Although its status among other disciplines, its content and its methods have contineouslychanged throughout history, Law became one of the basic branches of education in the classical periods of both the West and the East; and today, it is still one of the leading disciplines in modern education. Today Law Schools provide students with both a chance to have a prestigious job and a proficient higher education that can serve as a basis for further education in the social sciences. Furthermore, Law has a central place in the current political and social order; for this reason, training in Law offers vast opportunities for those who plan their career in this field, as well as those who envision an intellectual future for themselves.

Why Law School in Turkey?

The roots of the modern education in Law goes back to the mid-19th century in Turkey. The Law Schools in Turkey have therefore benefited from this tradition and accumulation of knowledge. Education in Law is suitable for those who seek a high-quality education at university. Initially established as a prestigious vocational training, it has maintained its prestige up until today. The fact that Law School graduates have many job opportunities in both public and private sectors, and that certain jobs are reserved for these graduates only, are just a few of the factors that make this School attractive for students.

Legal Education in Turkey

In Turkey, the vast majority of Law departments provide instruction in the Turkish language. There is also a basic distinction in the training provided between Public Law and the Private Law. This distinction is maintained departmentally at the undergraduate level, and with different programs at a graduate level. However, students graduate from the School (or Law Faculty), rather than the Department (Public Law or Private Law), at the undergraduate level, and from either the program in Public Law or the program in Private Law at the graduate level, upon their completion of their studies.

The sub-fields within the Department of Private Law include: Civil Law (consisting of Law of Persons, Family Law, Law of Obligations, Law of Property, and Inheritance Law), the Law of Civil Procedure, Execution and Bankruptcy Law, International Private Law, Labor and Social Security Law, the Roman Law, Trade Law, and Maritime Law.
The sub-fields within the Department of Public Law include: Penal and Penal Procedure Law, Constitutional Law, General Public Law (entailing State Theory and the Human Rights Law), Philosophy and Sociology of Law, Administrative Law, International Law, Financial Law, and History of Law.

The curricula in Law Schools usually consist of the basic courses referred to in the above mentioned sub-fields. Although laws and by-laws occupy an important position within curricula (especially in the fields of Civil Law, Trade Law, Penal Law, Administrative Law and Procedural Law), the Turkish tradition of legal education also reserves a central place for court decisions and doctrinal discussions.

As for graduate level education, the curricula usually contain courses on more specific topics. These include the newly emerging sub-fields within Law in general as well as the specific topics within the classical legal branches, ranging from Legal History, Philosophy of Law, Sociology of Law and the Methodology of Law, to Comparative Law, Human Rights Law and European Law.

The legal education in Turkey not only consists of the teaching of laws, but it also includes, within the framework of the Continental European Legal System (to which it belongs), the training in dogmatic legal theory in colloboration with perspectives from such other disciplines as philosophy, history, social sciences and comparative legal studies. The teaching of Law is essentially a vocational training, however, the fact that Law Schools place great importance to what is called the basic legal disciplines - including the Philosophy of Law, Sociology of Law, Legal History and State Theory- indicates that teaching of Law is not regarded merely as a vocational training in Turkey.

Essential and Desired Qualities, and Job Opportunities

Those who would like to apply to Law Schools in Turkey are expected to have a sound education in Turkish and Mathematics in their pre-college years. Those students who are interested in social sciences in general, history, philosophy and sociology as well as social and political issues, and most importantly in reading and researching, are more likely to be successful in this field.

Many different job opportunities await the successful graduates of the Law School. Primarily, these jobs include serving as judge, prosecutor, lawyer and notary. One may work as a lawyer in either the public or the private sector as well as being self-employed. In addition to these, Law School graduates can find executive and administrative jobs at different levels in both public and private sectors. Moreover, they have the right to apply for bureaucratic positions if they pass relevant examinations required for these positions. Finally, academic positions offere another job opportunity for Law School graduates.

Furthermore, many Turkish legal academics have been recognized as leading figures by the legal communities that follow different legal traditions; and they have served (and continue to do so) as judges in international courts.