Since the early days of their existence, human beings have tilled the earth because it was their only means of survival. Civilizations developed in areas with more arable lands, whose soil was more fertile, and with terrain conditions conducive to irrigation. The discovery of each agricultural equipment and machine has carried humankind to a higher level of civilization, starting a new era in some cases.
Agriculture has been one of the vital needs of the human life and this will continue to be the case as long as the earth exists. As mentioned in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, eating and drinking is the most basic need. In addition, the pharmaceutical industry depends on plants as much as it does on chemicals. The utilization of effective and correct agricultural methods is essential in the cultivation of plants that are required in the pharmaceutical industry.
Agriculture departments include all branches of science required for coming up with the most efficient agricultural production methods at a time when clean soil and water sources are becoming less and less available. Cultivation, the regulation and development of animal contributions to agriculture, fertilization technologies, agriculture ethics, and irrigation are issues dealt with by agricultural sciences. Agricultural sciences are continuously open to development with the aid of sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and biotechnology. In the projections made for the coming centuries, the dangers of hunger and lack of clean water are envisaged, and agricultural departments stand at a very critical point in terms of conducting the necessary research studies to eradicate these impending risks. In addition, as a result of the increasingly prevalent organic farming and fair trade applications, research projects are carried out to provide people with healthier and safer food products, and this calls for specialists in the field of agricultural sciences.Why Departments of Agriculture in Turkey?
Due to its geographical structure and topography, Turkey is one of the most convenient countries for agriculture. About one third of Turkey's 78 million-hectare surface area is covered with arable lands. Given the economic circumstances, more than a third of this land can be irrigated. The great agricultural potential here provides great advantages for the Agriculture Departments in Turkey. Agricultural sciences, mainly based on practical application, can operate efficiently in Turkey, since the country experiences all four of the seasons almost equally. There is a faculty of agriculture in almost every Turkish city and these faculties provide hands-on training in agricultural sciences and conduct research in relation to their particular geographical areas. All Turkish universities with these features have the infrastructure to support agricultural production, maintain constant collaboration with small, medium and big businesses that are involved in this field, and search for ways to use land, water, human labor and machine power in the most accurate and efficient way. Students who graduate from agricultural sciences will be equipped with theoretical knowledge as well as practical knowledge to engage in agricultural activities in the most accurate manner based on their knowledge of the nutritional resources most needed in the world.Agricultural Education
Agricultural Departments in Turkey can be classified as follows:
The Department of Horticulture provides education on fruit and vegetable cultivation and breeding, plant breeding, viticulture, greenhouse cultivation, mushroom cultivation, organic farming, horticulture, and agroecosystem.
The Plant Protection Department provides education on the protection of plants from pests and requires a lot of lab hours.
Agricultural Economics is a department more focused on theoretical studies and publications in the field of agribusiness and agricultural policies.
The Department of Agricultural Machinery provides technical training related to all machinery used in agricultural processes.
Field Crops is one of the fundamental departments of Agricultural Faculties. The cultivation, breeding, fertilization, and organic farming of field crops such as rice and wheat are some of the subjects covered by the education.
The Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation is referred to as Agricultural Civil Engineering as well. Areas covered by this department are how to efficiently use land and water resources, the preservation and development of these resources, the planning of facilities required at various stages of the creation of the appropriate environmental conditions, the design and construction of these structures, and taking measures to improve structural and physical aspects of agricultural enterprises.
The Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition examines the physical, chemical, microbiological, genetic qualities of soil and also its mineral structure. In addition, soil survey, mapping, soil genetics, soil fertility, plant nutrition, soil and water conservation problems are also part of this department's field of research.
Areas of interest of the Department of Animal Science include cattle-breeding and breeding studies, research on animal feed, and animal feed and animal genetics studies. It deals mainly with animals like cows, sheep, chickens, and goats, which provide many products.Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities
Any student wishing to study in one of the departments of Agriculture must love working with soil and plants. Sciences that are closely related to agricultural departments like meteorology, geography, chemistry, physics, sciences, agricultural sciences, and biology comprise the larger part of the curriculum. Thus, applicants need to be good in the field of natural sciences. In addition, as is the case in all activities based on production, being open to novelties and a love for exploring is a must as well.
Students who graduate from departments of agricultural faculties can pursue an academic career in the field. In addition, they can work in various positions related to agriculture in the public sector. They can also work on farms, in the agricultural production departments of factories, and also industrial agriculture companies. Graduates can easily find jobs since agriculture presents ample job opportunities as it has a great need for qualified personnel. Another advantage is the knowledge acquired by students during education can also be utilized in their own companies, if they decide to take that step. Any line of work related to greatly valued organic farming practices will certainly have a very bright future.