Corporations are among the major actors of the world economy by virtue of the production they materialize, the employment they provide, and of the taxes they pay. In today's world, the financial power of corporations have come to be compared with that of national economies. Also, considering the fact that many innovations are now realized on a world scale through the vital support and coordination of corporations, their importance are crystall clear in the modern economy. Moreover, the process of globalization and the consequent global economic transformations that have occurred in the last three decades have incresed the significance of understanding corporations more fully.
The main goal of the discipline of management (business administration) is to educate future entrepreneurs and managers, who have embraced modern management styles, and are open to new developments, prone to team work with efficient communicative skills, aware of the social responsibilites of the companies that they run, and who see competition as a lifestyle. Within this framework, management departments offer their students the educational programs that entail both theoretical knowledge, practical information and skills that they can use in different phases during their careers.Why Department of Management in Turkey
The answer to the question of why one should persue higher education in management in Turkey is closely related to knowing the future economic advantages that Turkey has. That Turkey has a great potential for economic growth becomes evident when a number of advantages that she enjoys are considered, including her geographical location and geo-political position as well as the demographic projections regarding her future. And the recent economic developments that Turkey has achieved, despite the global financial crises, indicates this great potential. An important role in this economic growth has been played by entrepereneurs. Therefore, having management education in Turkey will not only offer theoretical knowledge to students, but also an opportunity to be part of this enormous potential.
On the other hand, the benefits of the management discipline that it has provided (and is expected to provide in the future) has increased the demand for this department on the part of both students and academics. This has resulted in the increase in the quality of management education in Turkey; some departments even provide world class education in this field. These positive developments are also expected to continue in the future.Management Education in Turkey
Departments of Management entail the following sub-divisions:
The Accounting and Finance division aims to teach students from an academic and interdisciplinary perspective how to organize the financial records, which corporations have to keep for both themselves and their shareholders, in the most appropriate and ethical way
The Management and Organization division's goal is to teach students both theoretical knowledge and practical information about managing all the processes that corporations are involved with in the most efficient and useful manner for the corporation from the perspective of modern management principles.
The Production Management and Marketing division: The production of goods or services is a complex process that involves the organization of many factors, such as human resources, raw materials and the place of production etc. While the production of a commodity that the customers will like is extremely important for corporations, having this commodity reach the customer and letting them know about the existence and main features of that commodity are equally important. Thus, this sub-division of management aims to teach, from an academic disciplinary perspective, all the details regarding the production process of a corporation and the marketing of the commodity.
The Quantitative Methods division aims to teach the students the quantitative research methods required for measurement and evaluation in all the processes of corporations, including particularly the planning process.
The Cooperative System division entails the teaching of theoretical knowledge and practical application in the establishment and management of cooperatives, which are defined as commercial organizations founded for the benefit of their shareholders.
The Commercial Law division: All activities undertaken by corporations are complex processes that involve many different stakeholders. For this reason, both the corporations and stakeholders have certain rights and responsibilities vis-a-vis each other that are sanctioned by different laws. This division thus aims to teach the legal regulations that both corporations and stakeholders need to work, on both national and international scales.Essential and Desired Qualities, and Job Opportunities
One of the essential goals of the management departments is to educate future entrepreneurs and managers, which require students to have active personalities with a great potential to communicate with others effectively. In addition to these commucative skills, management students also need to have a sound basis in mathematics, which are needed in all the processes of management, in order to successfully complete this program.
Graduates of management departments can find jobs in many different commercial organizations, including particularly banks, financial institutions, accounting auditing firms, the capital market mediator institutions, management consultation firms, and marketing companies. Moreover, their background in managerial training will help them find jobs in civil society organizations. They also have the opportunity to work in public institutions as well as in the private sector. Finally, those students who continue to Master's or PhD level education may also choose a career in the academic sector.
The increasing pervasiveness of information and technology force the health care system to change more rapidly today than in the past. As part of the health care system that is in a process of rapid change, health institutions, too, have to change together with the entire system in order to continue to play the significant role that it plays in the enhancement of the health status of the society. The most compelling challenge that affects health care institutions most seriously in this process of change is the problem of scarce resources. In today's world, countries and governments do not usually choose to allocate more resources to health care systems; instead they prefer to look for different ways to use the existing resources more effectively.
The health care management program is a multi-disciplinary field of study, which requires training in different programs and fields. As such, it aims to solve problems that emerge in different sectors of the health care system, playing a significant role in meeting the increasing demands and expectations of the public sector in a most effective manner with as little use of existing resrouces as possible. For this reason, the most essential aim of the health care system management is to educate mid- and high-level health care managers who have expertise and skills in such areas of health care system as planning, organization, execution, coordination and control functions.Why Health Care Management Department in Turkey
With its special geographical location at the intersection of Europe and Asia, Turkey is located at the center of the health care system in the region. She has the accumulation of knowledge, experience and expertise in education in the field of health care management since the 1960s. There are approximately 15 universites that provide education in health care management, which have graduated thousands of students in order to meet the need for expert managers in the health care system. Furthermore, Turkey has a significant position in this field in terms of scientific studies as well. The health care management departments not only publish academic journals, they also organize nation wide panels, symposia and conferences, which provides rich intellectual forums from which students are able to benefit enormously. These opportunities make it possible for students to not only closely follow the new developments in the field of health care management in both Turkey and the world, but also have easy access to both academic and business connections in their own field.Health Care Management Education in Turkey
The health care management departments are organized in different universities under different names, including "health care management," "health care administration," "the management of health care institutions" or "the administration of health care institutions." They are included within the Faculty of Health Sciences, or the Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, or Health Care Management School. For this reason, there are different scoring and admission criteria for these deparments, depending on whether they are organized in a 4-year Faculty or a 2-year Vocational School.
Though some universities require English preparatory school, the language of instruction is Turkish in health care management departments. The departmental curricula include general cultural courses (Modern Turkish History and Turkish Language and Literature), courses on general management (accounting, economy, management and law), vocational courses on health care management (health care services management, organizational behavior in health care institutions, finance management in health care, cost accounting in health care institutions, quantitative methods in health care institutions, the health care economics, the health care planning, the health care politics, the health care law, marketing in health care institutions etc.), and applied courses (semester-based and summer internships). Moreover, the graduates of health care management departments may also continue to academic career by applying for graduate study in the same field.Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities
The students who wish to get training in health care management departments are expected to have an interest, and be successful, in management, economics and mathematics in general. Moreover, if they want to be successful in this area, they are also expected to have the capacity to think analytically, be creative, and be able to adapt to change, and to influence and relate to others, and to work in team work, with a sense of emphaty, patience, understanding, calm and passion.
Health care management departments have a wide array and variety of employment opportunities. Students graduate from these departments as "Health care managers" or "Health care administrators" and with a licence to work at admnistrative and managerial positions in all health care related organizations. The graduates of health care management departments have therefore a great potential for employment in many different service institutions in both public and private health care sectors. These organizaitons include public and private health care institutions (hospitals and clinics, and medical, rehabilitation, dialysis, diognosis, home care, and dental care centers); insurance companies; private organizations and civil NGOs that provide health care services at different levels; medical supply and drug companies; as well as the health care related departments of media institutions.
The history of law parallels human history because the latter is a social being. This is well illustrated by the saying "wherever there is society, there is law." What makes training in law indispensible both historically and today is this parallelism. Although its status among other disciplines, its content and its methods have contineouslychanged throughout history, Law became one of the basic branches of education in the classical periods of both the West and the East; and today, it is still one of the leading disciplines in modern education. Today Law Schools provide students with both a chance to have a prestigious job and a proficient higher education that can serve as a basis for further education in the social sciences. Furthermore, Law has a central place in the current political and social order; for this reason, training in Law offers vast opportunities for those who plan their career in this field, as well as those who envision an intellectual future for themselves.Why Law School in Turkey?
The roots of the modern education in Law goes back to the mid-19th century in Turkey. The Law Schools in Turkey have therefore benefited from this tradition and accumulation of knowledge. Education in Law is suitable for those who seek a high-quality education at university. Initially established as a prestigious vocational training, it has maintained its prestige up until today. The fact that Law School graduates have many job opportunities in both public and private sectors, and that certain jobs are reserved for these graduates only, are just a few of the factors that make this School attractive for students.Legal Education in Turkey
In Turkey, the vast majority of Law departments provide instruction in the Turkish language. There is also a basic distinction in the training provided between Public Law and the Private Law. This distinction is maintained departmentally at the undergraduate level, and with different programs at a graduate level. However, students graduate from the School (or Law Faculty), rather than the Department (Public Law or Private Law), at the undergraduate level, and from either the program in Public Law or the program in Private Law at the graduate level, upon their completion of their studies.
The sub-fields within the Department of Private Law include: Civil Law (consisting of Law of Persons, Family Law, Law of Obligations, Law of Property, and Inheritance Law), the Law of Civil Procedure, Execution and Bankruptcy Law, International Private Law, Labor and Social Security Law, the Roman Law, Trade Law, and Maritime Law.
The sub-fields within the Department of Public Law include: Penal and Penal Procedure Law, Constitutional Law, General Public Law (entailing State Theory and the Human Rights Law), Philosophy and Sociology of Law, Administrative Law, International Law, Financial Law, and History of Law.
The curricula in Law Schools usually consist of the basic courses referred to in the above mentioned sub-fields. Although laws and by-laws occupy an important position within curricula (especially in the fields of Civil Law, Trade Law, Penal Law, Administrative Law and Procedural Law), the Turkish tradition of legal education also reserves a central place for court decisions and doctrinal discussions.
As for graduate level education, the curricula usually contain courses on more specific topics. These include the newly emerging sub-fields within Law in general as well as the specific topics within the classical legal branches, ranging from Legal History, Philosophy of Law, Sociology of Law and the Methodology of Law, to Comparative Law, Human Rights Law and European Law.
The legal education in Turkey not only consists of the teaching of laws, but it also includes, within the framework of the Continental European Legal System (to which it belongs), the training in dogmatic legal theory in colloboration with perspectives from such other disciplines as philosophy, history, social sciences and comparative legal studies. The teaching of Law is essentially a vocational training, however, the fact that Law Schools place great importance to what is called the basic legal disciplines - including the Philosophy of Law, Sociology of Law, Legal History and State Theory- indicates that teaching of Law is not regarded merely as a vocational training in Turkey.Essential and Desired Qualities, and Job Opportunities
Those who would like to apply to Law Schools in Turkey are expected to have a sound education in Turkish and Mathematics in their pre-college years. Those students who are interested in social sciences in general, history, philosophy and sociology as well as social and political issues, and most importantly in reading and researching, are more likely to be successful in this field.
Many different job opportunities await the successful graduates of the Law School. Primarily, these jobs include serving as judge, prosecutor, lawyer and notary. One may work as a lawyer in either the public or the private sector as well as being self-employed. In addition to these, Law School graduates can find executive and administrative jobs at different levels in both public and private sectors. Moreover, they have the right to apply for bureaucratic positions if they pass relevant examinations required for these positions. Finally, academic positions offere another job opportunity for Law School graduates.
Furthermore, many Turkish legal academics have been recognized as leading figures by the legal communities that follow different legal traditions; and they have served (and continue to do so) as judges in international courts.
The Department of Political Science and International Relations emerged as a result of the need to establish substantial connections between current politics and social sciences throughout the 20th century; it seeks answers to questions that rise to prominence in this context. For example, how much do we know about politics given that we face it every day and it directly affects our lives? What is the state? Why do political parties exist? Where do civil society and the media stand in relation to politics? How much does economics impact on politics? Where do identities stand in a political system? Why do nations fight? Why did the US invade Iraq? Where is the international system headed? The Department of Political Science and International Relations seeks meaningful and practical answers to these questions.
The multidimensional structure of the department makes it a discipline that brings the different work of multiple disciplines together. While our inevitable connection with the past necessarily makes it obligatory to work in partnership with History and Philosophy, today's problems oblige us to collaborate with sciences such as Sociology, Economics, and Psychology.Why Department of Political Science and International Relations in Turkey
Turkey is located in a region that connects the continents of Europe and Asia. In addition, Turkey's location in the Middle East, where many geopolitically unstable political structures emerged in the 20th century, makes it one of the most important actors in international politics.
Each area of political and economic tension in this region during the last century inevitably led Turkey to develop a more active and dynamic foreign policy. For example, the hottest issues in global politics from the Cyprus peace talks to the negotiations with the European Union, from the invasion of Iraq (one of Turkey's neighbors), to the Syrian refugees in southern Turkey are followed closely by academics and researchers in Turkey.
In addition to foreign policy, the social and economic dimensions of the experience of modernization and westernization have significantly affected the domestic political atmosphere in Turkey. Today, Turkey's main political agenda items are discussions on democratization, identity, human rights, religion and the nature of public sphere, which are also topics substantially discussed in the literature of Political Science and International Relations.
For these reasons, students studying Political Science and International Relations in Turkey can have the opportunity to research and understand their basic discussion topics at a depth beyond the tirade of daily politics.Education of Political Science and International Relations
The main objective of education in Political Science and International Relations in Turkey is to conduct a training program that is compatible with the developments in the world political order and that takes into account today's scientific and technological advancements as well as to train students with strong analytical capabilities who will enthusiastically follow all the new developments.
Political Science and International Relations in Turkey is usually divided into four departments. Political Science focuses on issues such as political thought, political systems, elections, the basic mechanisms of domestic politics, and also discusses the relationship between domestic politics and foreign policy. Students in the department of International Relations take courses mainly on geopolitics, strategy, security studies, conflict resolution, and mediation. By establishing a connection between history and politics, Political History focuses on major conflicts, wars, economic crises experienced in the past and their impacts on the states system. The Department of International Law, by establishing a relationship between International Relations and Law, focuses on issues such as the basic agreements, international organizations, and courts that have determined the international politics for the last two centuries in particular.Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities
Students who want to study in the Department of Political Science and International Relations must be willing to read and research a lot. Students who select the Department of Political Science and International Relations in Turkey's university entrance examination system are required to correctly answer the questions in the numerical part such as those about mathematics, and the ones in the non-numerical part such as those about History and Philosophy on an equal footing. Besides, those who want to study and be successful in this department must achieve a high level of proficiency in English until they graduate. Students who want to focus on particular regions can also find the opportunity to learn the languages of Turkey's neighboring countries such as Arabic, Greek, Bulgarian, Russian, and Persian.
In addition to helping students achieve a deep level of knowledge and a strong cultural background to have better futures, Political Science and International Relations offers them a big number of employment chances as well. The graduates of this department can be employed in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in particular, and in the ministries of Home Affairs, Finance and Tourism, and universities. They can represent their countries in the world in these positions, and thanks to the education they have received and the high level of proficiency they have achieved in their foreign language, they can also work in international organizations such as the NATO, the United Nations, the IMF, and the World Bank. Additionally, in today's globalized world, international companies, non-governmental organizations and aid agencies offer important job opportunities for the graduates of this department.
Public administration is an inevitable consequence of the existence of social life and has roots in the starting point of humanity. Public administration examines the phenomenon of management, organization, decision-making and implementation processes, and tries to make sense of and explain political, social, and economic changes. Public administration initially emerged as a result of the tendency to specialize in governing the state and its peripheral organs or the administration of international political institutions, so in this regard it distanced itself from the public sector; however, the ice between the two has started thawing particularly through the globalization process. In this context, public administration has started interacting with the public sector in its main areas such as planning and decision-making processes, organization, administration, and human resources management, and has tried to implement management principles similar to those utilized by the private sector. Perceived so far as a phenomenon inextricably intertwined with the public sector, public administration has transformed into an area that feeds on both the public and the private sectors while also informing both of them. However, it should be noted that this interaction process is a continuing one and the public sphere still weighs heavier than the private one in terms of influence.Why Department of Public Administration in Turkey
Closely following the transformation being undergone by public administration, Turkey has been adapting the education of Public Administration according to this transformation process. The emergence of new insights on public administration in Turkey especially with the impact of the administrative reformation process that gained momentum after 1980 is being followed by the academic community more closely and with a greater interest. In this regard, it must be emphasized that the education of public administration in Turkey has been influenced by both the continental European tradition and the Anglo-Saxon tradition, and that this is an enriching factor for the education. The deep-rooted administrative tradition Turkey leans on while reforming its public structure, its public sector that grows with each passing day, and the science of business administration that informs this growth make this adaptation process more successful, efficient, and preferable. The steadily increasing number of public administration graduates employed in the private sector can also be taken as one of the concrete indicators of this fact.Public Administration Educatio
Public Administration programs are shaped so as to encompass many sciences for the duration of the undergraduate program and in line with an understanding of joint education implemented comprehensively. Within this framework, courses such as political science, political thought, political history, sociology, political sociology, social structure, international relations, urban policy, environmental issues, constitutional law, administrative law, civil law, commercial law, management science, personnel management, economics, finance, accounting, etc. are of big importance. When it comes to master's programs, the departments operating under the Public Administration Department are organized in a way that will retain their multidisciplinary structures but that will at the same time allow for specialization in certain areas. The departments under the Public Administration Department and their specific operating areas are as follows:
The Department of Political and Social Science gives courses mainly on political science, politics, sociology, political philosophy, political history, and social structure.
The Department of Management Sciences gives priority to the management sciences, rather than political science. This department focuses on topics such as local governments, management science, personnel management, management psychology, and the history of management.
The Department of Urbanization and Environmental Problems prioritizes areas such as urban management, urban planning, housing policy, and environmental issues.
Local Governments and Urban Development is a department in which particularly municipal administration and urban planning are placed in the limelight, and it can be defined as an intersecting point of the departments of Local Governments and Environmental and Urban Development. As part of the program, there are courses on such areas as political and social sciences, management sciences, and urbanization and environmental problems.
In the Department of Legal Studies, the most prominent courses in the curriculum are constitutional law, criminal law, administrative law, international law, and environmental law.
The Department of Istanbul Studies examines this largest city of Turkey from historical, social, cultural, and economic perspectives in order to come up with solutions to the problems it is already faced with and those that it may encounter in the future.
Given its multifaceted structure, the Department of Public Administration accepts students from a very broad range of areas compared to other departments. Students from almost every branch of the social sciences have the possibility to receive education at graduate and doctoral levels, provided that they meet the standard for foreign language proficiency. As is obvious from the departments it has under its umbrella, the Department of Public Administration embodies a character in which a multidisciplinary approach stands out particularly in the graduate programs it offers.Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities
Having strong verbal capacities and a strong analytical mind for establishing substantiated cause-and-effect relationships is very important for the students of the Department of Public Administration toward a successful completion of their studies. On the other hand, taking into consideration the working areas of the faculty members that train administrative staff for both the private and the public sector, having strong effective management and organizational capabilities and the ability to resolve crises is also very important for the student candidates for the achievement of success in their careers after graduation.
In its broadest sense, Public administration focuses on the notion of administration, and it provides its graduates job opportunities primarily in government agencies, and in local governments, the judicial system, and also international administrative organizations. In addition, as noted above, the graduates of the department are increasingly employed for a wide variety of management positions in the public sector such as in public opinion research companies.
How was life before the internet and cell phones? Why do people get lonely as cities get large? Do our identities consist only of the information on our ID cards? Why do some things become fashionable? How do we resolve conflicts in the society? How do organizations like corporations, states, and NGOs work? How do culture and politics affect each other? Why do some people become religious, others nationalist or liberal or socialist? How do religions and ideologies shape our attitudes and norms, and even the economy? How do civilizations rise and fall? Sociology is the right choice for those who seek for answers to these kinds of questions.
Sociology entails the systematic and scientific study of social relations; it thus offers the students the opportunity to go beyond what is visible, the superficial and obvious aspects of these relations, thereby making it possible for them to know both themselves and the social structures that surround them. In other words, sociology provides them with the opportunity to transcend a superficial description of the events that they observe around themselves, and to be equipped with the "sociological imagination" that makes it possible for them to discover and explore the social conditions behind these events and the underlying, invisible mechanisms that produce these epecific events in the society.
An important advantage that Sociology has is that it is located right at the center of all the other social sciences and that it is a vast field of knowledge. With this advantage, Sociology has contact points and intersecting areas with diverse fields of specialization, from political science to cultural studies, from psychology to economy, from philosophy to history and literature. Therefore, it gives the student the opportunity to touch upon these different disciplines within the human and social sciences.Why Sociology in Turkey?
Turkey offers the students to gain an education in a geography where West meets the East and in a context where different cultures co-exist and interact with each other. She is also a country whose higher education system is structured in a stable and secure environement, a fact reinforced by Turkey's growing economy and an increasingly open and diverse social structure. In addition to these, Turkey's many universities (whose numbers are growing every year), and a dynamic and cultural millieu that she has offer, students have vast opportunities to interact with others and learn from them by participating in various scientific conferences, workshops, symposia and exhibitions organized by these universities.
Turkey and Istabul in particular, are also an ideal labaratory for socilogical research and learning with their incredible dynamism and spectacular diversity. One of the greatest, yet the most understudied, metropols of the world, Istanbul's dynamic economy, rich cultural life, and incredible diversity offers a hard-to-find treasure for today's (and tomorrow's) sociologists. This dynamism and diversity help students learn and practice some of the most significant topics within Sociology, including political sociology, historical and comparative studies, cultural sociology and the sociology of religion, organizations and economic life, urban studies, migration, and advanced statistical methods. Having a sociology education in Turkey provides the students with the opportunity to be sociologists who know both the East and the West, and are familiar with different societies and civilizations. Finally, in Turkey one can learn sociology in both English and French as well as in Turkish.Sociology Education in Turkey
54 Turkish universities have accredited sociology departments in Turkey; 43 of them are public universites, 11 are private institutions. Out of these, 46 departments offer sociology education in Turkish; the language of instruction is English at ŞEHİR, ODTÜ, Boğaziçi, Koç, Marmara, Bilgi, Fatih, Bahçeşehir and Sabancı universities; and Galatasaray university's language of instruction is French.
The undergraduate curricula in many sociology departments are organized around four sub-fields. These include: first, General Sociology and Methodology, which basically entail theoretical and methodological issues independent of empirical research; second, Sociology of Institutions; third, Sociometry (labeled as Social Structure and Change in some departments); and fourth, Applied Sociology, which entails studies based on empirical field research.
Although the majority of sociology departments in Turkey have adopted this classification, the recently established departments and/or those who follow the current developments and global trends more closely adopt thematic sub-divisions that are more common in the world, instead of following the traditional division of sub-fields. These thematic fields also refer to the basic courses that are offered in both graduate and undergraduate programs, including most commonly: Political sociology, Urban sociology, Rural sociology, Sociology of Religion, Sociology of Everyday Life, Sociology of Literature and Arts, Sociology of Demography and Migration, Sociology of Ethnicity, and Economic sociology and Historical sociology.Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities
There are no formal requirements for sociology education in Turkey. However, because Sociology is the systematic and analytical study of social relations and phenomena, and is based on quantitative and qualitative methods, including also participant observation, and requires the accommodation of different, sometimes extremely 'strange' and unfamiliar views and ideas that are found within the society. Students are expected to be open to different perspectives and ideologically and culturally diverse points of view, to love reading, observing and synthesizing, to have an analytical and systematic outlook, and a good potential to communicate with others effectively.
With the intellectual capacity and occupational skills that sociology education provides in Turkey, the graduates will be able to work as sociologists, teachers and experts in different institutions in the public sector; they will also find the opportunity to find jobs in the private sector, particularly in different branches of mass media, advertisement, international trade as well as in the marketing, import-export, and human resources departments of local and international companies. Moreover, sociology graduates are primary and natural candidates for job posistions in the civil society organizations and NGOs, whose numbers are increasingly growing in Turkey every day, as well as in local branches of such global-international organizations as the EU, UNICEF, UNDP and WHO. Finally, sociology graduates have also the opportunity to continue the next step of their academic career doing MA-level and PhD studies in different disciplines within human and social sciences.
Since the beginning of history human beings have worked to meet their daily needs but have also for strived their futures. Additionally, any person living in a society has always had relations with other members of the society and these relations and relationships are defined by elements like production, consumption and distribution. Economics was recognized as a science in the second half of the 18th century after the publishing of "The Wealth of Nations" by Adam Smith which examines people and institutions engaged in production, distribution and consumption. According to the science of economics, resources are scarce, yet the needs are endless. Economic science comes into play to resolve this impasse and gets engaged in research to ensure that scarce resources are used in the most effective way to meet people's needs.On the other hand, it creates solutions for distribution of produced goods and services.Why Department of Economics in Turkey?
As a developing country, Turkey has been closely monitoring the latest worldwide developments in the economic field both from academic and political aspects. As a result, along with its G-20 membership, Turkey has become one of the world's leading economies.
On the other hand, the region where present-day Turkey is located has been, throughout history, the home of many politically and economically powerful states.The last example before the Republic of Turkey is the Ottoman Empire. The country has inherited a legacy of a six-hundred-year-old accumulation of knowledge and experience and has been a focal point for many local and foreign economists.
The economic policies that Turkey has been following since the early 2000s have strengthened the banking and industrial sectors. This situation has resulted in foreign investors' turning towards Turkey and this interest is expected to continue growing in the following years.
Economics education in Turkey allows students to theoretically learn about the economic developments in the world.Universities that follow the economic trends in the world and that employ academics who contribute to these trends also inform the economic policies.Therefore, students studying in Turkey will find the opportunity to watch the course of economic science on a global scale and they will be able to see how practical knowledge they have so far acquired is processed.Economics Education
There are about a hundred university departments of economics in Turkey, and the undergraduate education is four years. In this process, students take courses on macro economics, micro economics, banking and finance, accounting, international economics, monetary economics, development economics, and institutional economics.
Apart from the undergraduate education, many universities also offer postgraduate degrees. The graduate education in Economics includes the following departments:
The Department of Theory of Economics aims to help students understand economic attitudes, decision making processes, and how markets, economies, and the global economy operate.In particular, intensive introductory and advanced level courses are given on Macro and Micro Economics.In addition, the goal of the department is to help students acquire the knowledge and methodology based on mathematical methods.
In the department of Economic Policy, students will acquire knowledge on the balance of payments in developed and developing economies, price stability, steady economic growth, full employment, and macro and micro policies required for the formation of targets such as fair distribution of income.
Economic Development and International Economics departments examine the issues of foreign investment, international money and capital markets, tariffs, international monetary system, and foreign trade policies.Departments aim to develop the students' skills and abilities and strengthen their comparative and critical perspectives.
The Department of Economic History examines the history of economics, modern-day classical economics, institutional economics, Marxist economic theories, and the scientists who established or contributed to the development of these theories. On the other hand, the department examines the systems of economically powerful states and empires of the past from an economical perspective and tries to offer alternative solutions to today's economic problems by establishing how these systems functioned and operated.Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities
When the education of the Economics Department and the employment areas of the graduates are considered, students are expected to have numerical thinking skills. Mathematics, statistics and econometrics are areas students must be familiar with if they want to succeed in their studies. On the other hand, as the department's program is equally based on numerical and non-math courses, students of this department are required to have verbal reasoning skills as well.
Economics has a large range of job opportunities. For instance, graduates can work in foreign and domestic banking, finance, accounting, audit firms, capital markets; they can provide economic consulting services for private sector firms, accounting and marketing departments, may be employed in a number of ministries and other related state institutions, and can work as experts, auditors, district governors or administrative judges. Graduates of the department also have numerous alternatives in terms of academic career.
History investigates the knowledge and everyday life of the past. To examine the creation of the universe and human beings is to reveal the life stories of people living in different lands, and follow the historical processes of communities brought together by interpersonal relationships, economies, cultures, sciences, and states. Trying to understand our present based on the past is to make our identities meaningful. History is a fundamental science, but it is also an art. It is a program that opens up a trail for other disciplines as well as for individuals, endowing them with fresher perspectives.
Each region and each community had its role to play in creating this history of humankind. There have been people, ideas, places, and communities that had greater impacts in shaping history; there have also been events that changed the course of history. Who are the subjects of these events and what are their causes, and how did they occur? The historian seeks answers to these questions through historical sources (his most important assistant), and through methods that help him make sense of these sources. The discipline of history is closely related to departments such as History of Science, Art History, Museum Studies, Information and Document Management (Record Keeping), and Archaeology.Why Department of History in Turkey
Geographically, Turkey has always been at the center of history. This region has been the birth place of a large number of states and communities that played major roles in history ofso many cultures, and has also hosted major sea and land trade routes such as the Silk Road, the Spice Road, the Roman Road (Via Egnatia), which all helped to create a global interaction. The geographical implication of studying history in Turkey is that the students also get to study the histories of Europe, the Balkans, the Middle East, Central Asia, and Africa. It also means coming face to face with the social histories of Islam, Christianity, Judaism, and some other faiths as well as penetrating the histories of cosmopolitan states and societies such as the Sumerians, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Seljuks, and the Ottomans.
Almost every Turkish university has a department of History. Seminars, conferences, symposia, and workshops organized by universities and NGOs are virtually innumerable. There are also a large number of books published in the field of history and very popular monthly periodicals that deal only with history.
Turkey possesses a significant amount of very rich and diverse historical sources, particularly in regard to the Ottoman history. This material allows for a historical education that contains people and cultures from every language and religion. In addition, the stable and secure environment in Turkey and its offering the opportunity to learn different languages make it attractive to study history here.History Education
The curricula in Turkish History Departments, which base their systems mostly on comparative history, are largely shaped by different historical approaches and they give particular emphasis to the world history. In history departments, the undergraduate education is four years with a two-year master's program and a four-year doctoral program (for those who want to pursue an academic career).
The undergraduate education is generally composed of courses that teach methods of historiography and historical writing, thematic introductory courses that focus on the Turkish, Ottoman, European, and Islamic history as well as the world history in general etc.), and also language courses that teach the major languages of research in the field such as Ottoman Turkish, Greek, and Hebrew. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, our universities offer the chance of taking courses from other disciplines, and mainly from literature and social sciences, thereby facilitating the possibility of doing a minor or a double major, eventually making the study of history in Turkey a privilege and a priority. Turkish history departments also encourage spending a term or two in foreign universities through the Erasmus program, and in other Turkish universities through the Farabi program. Students who graduate from Turkish history departments can pursue postgraduate degrees in European, American or other foreign universities.
At the graduate level, as part of the Social Sciences Institute or the Institutes of Turkic Studies, Atatürk studies, and Middle East Studies, it is possible to specialize in the major branches of, for instance, Prehistoric Era, Middle Ages, Early Modern Age, Modern Age, and the history of the Republic of Turkey; and thematic major branches of Turkish History, European History, History of the Balkans, Byzantine History, American History, Caucasian History, Asian History, African History, History of the Middle East, Mediterranean History, Islamic History, History of Foundations, History of Art, History of Architecture, History of Economics, and Oral History. In addition to courses on history writing, graduate programs offer a large number of elective courses on the above-mentioned research languages and the major branches of specialization. In the seminar classes, students work on their theses with their academic advisers.
Turkish universities have many internationally acclaimed historians, who teach courses on various subbranches of expertise. Halil İnalcık, Kemal Karpat, Engin D. Akarlı, Mehmet İpşirli, Fikret Adanır, Mehmet Genç, Suraiya Faroqhi, İlber Ortaylı, Zafer Toprak, Mete Tunçay, Melek Delilbaşı, and A. Selçuk Esenbel are some of the most prominent ones among them.Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities
The first prerequisite expected of the applicants is to have a deep curiosity about the past. Concomitant to this curiosity is language skills and a love for dealing with nuances. Graduates can pursue an academic career. They can work as history teachers, archive specialists, librarians, travel guides, editors, writers, or consultants.
In addition to being a field of vocational training, have been part of university education for more than half a century as an academic field. Media and Communication brings together many disciplines from social sciences, humanities, and engineering. Among these disciplines we can mention philosophy, history, geography, anthropology, sociology, economics, political science, psychology, semiotics, cybernetics-cognitive sciences, and engineering sciences. Communication schools, journalism, radio and television, cinematography, advertising, and public relations are academic structures that also offer vocational training. Media and Communications education is given under the following departments.
1. Department of Journalism
The history of modernity is also that of journalism. The initial foundations of journalism started to form in the 15th century when news letters were given in exchange for money for the first time, and it became institutionalized in the 19th century, becoming a profession that is one of the most important elements of the modern social reorganization. In the first half of the 20th century some educational institutions started offering vocational training on journalism. Thanks to newspapers, magazines, radio, television, computers and portable communication devices with an internet connection, journalism has become a very active, hectic, multi-routed and multidimensional profession that requires a non-stop, 24/7 kind of broadcasting and publishing.
The essence of this profession is news-reporting. Today, the concept that corresponds to multi-routed news-reporting is news media. Apart from being a global sector in the economic sense, news media is in interaction with the political, social, and cultural spheres and is therefore an academic platform where many disciplines intersect. Through many of its features, it has taken root in the lives of modern peoples and has created a large field of employment as a profession with all its sub-sectors.
Why Department of Journalism in Turkey?
Journalism education began in Turkey for the first time in 1948 at a private educational institution based in Istanbul, and then it became a part of the academic circles with the Institute of Journalism opened in Istanbul University in 1950. The media and communication studies initiated in 1965 by Ankara University largely based on theoretical courses denote the half-a-century experience of journalism education and studies in Turkey.
The Department of Journalism aims to enable its young students to acquire general knowledge, conveying to them the contemporary developments in theories of communication and mass communication, and in general, teaching them the profession of journalism through various sets of applications done in the light of the knowledge imparted to them.
Operating as the main department in about 70 Faculties of Communication, including those in private universities, Department of Journalism's main objectives are the production and distribution of accurate news and information, and the training of human resources that will facilitate people's access to the right information at the right time and with the right tools. With a journalistic experience of about two centuries, Turkey has so many research and application centers founded in communication faculties as well as a growing media sector, demonstrating its great opportunities in journalism education and teaching.
The first year of the undergraduate education is based largely on courses commonly taken with the students of some other departments, whereas in the following three years, courses specific of the department start to be given as well as those that require its attendees to specialize in those particular fields. In addition to the common courses, courses that provide specialized knowledge of the field are given such as Specialized Journalism, Communication History, Introduction to Mass Communication, Magazine Publishing, New Media, News Writing, News-reporting for Agencies, Local Journalism, and Sports and Magazine Journalism. Most of the graduate studies in the field of communication and media are carried out under the umbrella of the Institute of Social Sciences. Journalism education is given in Anadolu University under the name of Press and Publication. In addition, it should be especially noted that Turkey has an Institute of Communication Sciences. Journalism studies are grouped under four main divisions at the postgraduate level:
Department of Public Journalism: The program aims to train qualified media members and academics by focusing on issues like the form and content of newspapers, magazines, newsletters, and other written and visual sources of information and news, the analyses of news texts, news / article types and news production processes, principles and ethics of journalism, sociology of news, social and public function of media, and the press-government-democracy relations.
Media Economics and Management Department: By offering courses on basic journalism knowledge, economics, finance, cost, budgeting, distribution, management, organization, human resources, planning, and audit issues, the program's objective is to train media executives who will work at national and international levels in the media and publishing sector.
Department of Information Technology: The chief research focus of this department is how information technologies impact on the media, and the political and social life, and given this focus, it aims at carrying out theoretical studies on information systems and training qualified personnel.
Department of Sociology of Communication: Its main focus being the process following the emergence of mass communication devices as an influential force with profound political, social, economic, and cultural implications, the program's objective is to conduct studies on the elements of communication and its semantic fields in general, the relationship between society and communication, the development of social communication in its historical process, and communication systems.
Prof. OyaTokgöz, Prof. NabiAvcı, and Prof. AtillaGirgin can be mentioned among the prominent figures of this field in Turkey.
Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities
The basic qualifications required of those wishing to study journalism in Turkey are that they should have advanced written and oral language skills, know at least one foreign language, and be avid readers very keen on studying, researching, and writing. However, since there is no entrance examination that tests any particular skill, quality or proficiency in art, anyone who passes the university entrance exam can study journalism.
Journalism graduates can work as journalists, experts, researchers, media executives, and academics, and in these positions, they can assume active roles at national and international levels in the print media and the audio-visual media, the internet media, and the publishing industry.
2.Department of Radio-Television and Cinema
The trendsetting technical developments in communication and mass communication after the invention of the printing press, in chronological order, are telegraph, radio (wireless / walkie-talkie), radio, cinema and television. The great developments achieved in the fields of radio, television, and cinema, and also in publishing left their indelible marks on the 20th century. Cinema, which has developed as an art and as a publishing industry, radio and TV broadcasting, which, unlike journalism whose existence is based on news-reporting, combine many fields of expertise and many professions and sectors, thereby giving rise to the formation of new sectors, involve written and audio-visual works from both technical and artistic perspectives. As a combination of fields that require vocational training, artistic and academic-theoretical studies, Radio-Television and Cinema is a significant department in communication faculties.
Why Radio-Television and Cinema in Turkey?
Cinema was invented in the last decade of the 19th century, while radio broadcasting was initiated in early 20th century, and TV broadcasting started taking place extensively in the 1950's after the first attempts made in the 1930's. The first ever cinematic viewing in Turkey took place in the last years of the 19th century, shortly after its invention. Radio broadcasting began in 1927. TV broadcasting began locally in Istanbul Technical University in 1952 as a test broadcast, but the extensive broadcast coverage came in 1968 with the first official broadcast of the Turkish Radio and Television (TRT). The professional experience in the field goes well beyond a century, but at an academic level, radio, television and cinema training has been offered since 1965. Important studies are done in the field of Radio-Television and Cinema, one of the major departments of communication faculties in nearly 70 Turkish universities.
Radio-Television and Cinema Education
The first year of the undergraduate education is based largely on courses commonly taken with the students of some other departments, whereas in the following three years, courses specific to the department start to be given as well as those that require its attendees to specialize in those particular fields. Some of the courses specific to the department, calling for specialization are Film Theories, Art History, Television-Studio Productions, Film Production, Creative Writing, World Cinema, Radio and Television Journalism, Actor Management, and Advertising Production. However, there is a possibility to pursue a postgraduate degree in four sub-departments under the Radio-Television and Cinema Department.
Radio and Television Department: Being largely an area of application that functions as a bridge between the print media and the internet-based new media, the Radio and Television Department deals in depth with the historical development of mass media tools, and the sociological, psychological, and economic aspects of the audio-visual communication methods. Courses like fiction, internet publishing, radio and television technology, and program producing are provided theoretically and practically.
Department of Communication Sciences: In this department, theoretical studies are made about mass communication devices and communication from the perspective of the print media, the audio-visual media, and the new media. The main areas of research and study are critical media theory, popular culture, society of entertainment, visual culture and ideology, public space, new media sociology, media studies, cultural studies, consumer society, social gender, and global culture.
Department of Visual Communication Design: This department's main objective is to train visual communication specialists, who are needed by the media, and especially the new media, which has attained a very multi-routed and multi-dimensional level of broadcasting, and to carry out theoretical studies, first and foremost in the fields of visuality and animation. As a new department that combines photography and graphic design, it offers courses that involve technical training such as animation applications, web design, graphic design and photography as well as theoretical courses and seminars such as art history and sociology of art.
Department of Cinema: It aims at providing the theoretical and practical infrastructure required to have a good command of the aesthetic, ethical, and cultural dimensions of cinema. To this end, practical and theoretical courses are given such as the idea of cinema, script writing, production of short and long films, fiction, film analysis and criticism, documentary films, popular genres, cinema theories, and film history.
Two leading figures of the field are Prof. Özden Cankaya and Prof. Peyami Çelikcan.
Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities
The basic qualifications required of those wishing to study Radio-Television and Cinema in Turkey are that they should have advanced written and oral language skills, a good diction and a presentable appearance, know at least one foreign language, and be avid readers very keen on studying, researching, and writing, and interested in artistic activities. However, since there is no entrance examination that tests any particular skill, quality or proficiency in art, anyone who passes the university entrance exam can study in this department.
Graduates of Radio-Television and Cinema can work as film directors, producers, cinematographers, screenwriters, editors, photographers, or managers in any type of audio-visual media corporation or sector, and above all, in the cinema sector or they can pursue an academic career.
3. Department of Public Relations and Publicity
Defined as the communication and interaction between an organization and its target audience, Public Relations is a reciprocal notion of communication that regulates the relations of all institutions and organization to their counterparts and target audiences, introduces an organization to its potential target audience while communicating all of the expectations and impressions of the target audience to the organization. Since the institutionalization of communication studies at University, Public Relations has been one of the main departments, and it has been established for carrying out political and market-research oriented theoretical and practical studies, and for providing skilled manpower in this field. With its growing importance due to the developing atmosphere of communication, Public Relations remains indispensable in communication and media studies with the training it provides in the fields of publicity, advertising, and public opinion research.
Why Department of Public Relations and Publicity in Turkey?
On account of a number of reasons, such as the nature of social life under changing circumstances, the needs for people and organizations to remain in constant touch with organized groups, and also due the growing popularity of mass communication devices, theoretical and practical studies are carried out in the field of Public Relations.
Public Relations have been a part of the academy as one of the main departments since 1965. Turkey, with its booming economy and technological infrastructure and facilities, is a country where theoretical studies and applications related to Public Relations can be conducted. Turkey has great potential in this field thanks to its vast political, social, and cultural possibilities and its capacity of reaching beyond its borders.
Public Relations and Publicity Education
The first year of the undergraduate education is based largely on courses commonly taken with the students of some other departments, whereas in the following three years, courses specific to the department start to be given as well as those that require its attendees to specialize in those particular fields. Public Relations degree programs offers the following courses: oral and written forms of communication, marketing, case studies, statistics, research, graphics and design, editorial and visualization, media planning and campaigning. The graduate studies in this field are offered in four main departments:
Department of Public Relations: It aims at ensuring a scientific accumulation and training qualified and competent work force that will be able to meet sectoral needs.
Advertising and Publicity Department: It aims at training knowledgeable advertisers well-versed in the terms and theories of advertising and endowed with the required qualifications in terms of vocational responsibilities, and academics who will carry out theoretical studies in this field.
Department of Research Methodology: It aims at developing the students' ability to effectively apply the qualitative and quantitative research methods used in the field of social sciences and to analytically interpret the results obtained for the general purpose of developing the students' knowledge and skills in regard to the fundamental concepts and methodology of scientific research.
Department of Interpersonal Communication: In faculties of communication established to carry out theoretical and practical educational activities in the field of Mass Communication, Interpersonal Communication, as an emerging field of academic study beyond media communication, aims at training communicators equipped with knowledge, skills, and qualifications that can be used in the field of organizational communication, and at conducting theoretical studies.
Among some of the prominent academics in the field are Prof. Mete Çamdereli, Prof. Ali Atıf Bir, and Prof. Yusuf Devran.
Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities
The basic qualifications required of those wishing to study Public Relations and Publicity in Turkey are that they should have advanced written and oral language skills, know at least one foreign language, and be avid readers very keen on studying, researching, and writing as well as interested in artistic activities. However, since there is no entrance examination that tests any particular skill, quality or proficiency in art, anyone who passes the university entrance exam can study in this department.
Graduates can be employed in advertising agencies, public relations firms, media planning and buying companies, and as a brand manager in many other kinds of companies.
Centers of Communication Research and Application
All communication faculties have within their premises all technical requirements such as radio, television and photography studios to carry out theoretical as well as practical studies; actual camera, outside broadcast vehicles, outdoor shooting tools for television and cinema, lighting and sound equipment, editing rooms where the shot footage is assembled and edited, Green Box rooms for film shootings, Video-DVD-VCD archives and viewing rooms, and informatics labs. In addition, it should be noted that workshops and application units in the fields of newspaper, magazine, e-publishing, advertising, social media, animation, and design are engaged in production in their own particular fields.