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Engineering and Technology

Mechatronic Engineering

The term Mechatronics was first used by a Japanese engineer to denote a computer control of electric motors. At first, the words 'mechanic' and 'electronic' were combined to form the term 'Electromechanics'. The word Mechatronics, which originally emerged as a registered trademark in 1971, in time became a globally accepted technical term. With a growing number of applications around the world, Mechatronics is also supported by universities through associate, undergraduate and graduate programs.

Mechatronics Engineering is a relatively new field of engineering that emerged as a combination of fields such as electrical, electronic, mechanical and computer engineering. Being a multidisciplinary area, it is a field that trains engineers preferred by the industry of small and medium sized enterprises, especially in Turkey. The Mechatronics department includes the following branches:

• Mechanical Systems (Computer-Aided Design, Computer-Aided Manufacturing, Anti-backlash and High-Precision Mechanical Transmission systems)
• Control Systems (Control System Design and Real-Time Control)
• Computer Systems (Algorithm Encryption - Encoding, Communication Protocol Generation and Real-Time Programming)
• Electrical and Electronic Systems [Actuators (engines, etc.) and Sensors, Analog/Digital - Digital/Analog Cards, Data Collection Cards]

Mechatronic systems that comprise mechanical, electrical, and electronic components are systems that incorporate sensors of preliminary data, microprocessors that interpret and process the data, and finally actuators that react in accordance with the collected data. All widely used "smart products" such as cameras, camcorders, copiers, washing machines and CDs which have become a part of our daily lives are the simplest and most typical examples of mechatronic systems with sensors, and computer control and actuation mechanisms. They are automatic machines that can sense, reason, make decisions and act accordingly. The most common application areas of Mechatronics are the following:

• Manufacturing Technology (computer-controlled benches, robots, etc.)
• Automotive Industry (ABS braking systems, computer-controlled engine efficiency measurement devices, electric and hybrid-electric vehicles)
• Space Technology (spacecraft control)
• Defense Industry (rocket systems, aircraft control systems, autonomous or unmanned aircraft)
• Material Processing (Chemical process control; metal, plastic and composite materials)
• In imaging and recording industry (camcorder, camera)
• In medical industry (medical analysis units, imaging devices, etc.)
• In copier machines (photocopy, offset machines)
• Consumer goods (electrical household appliances, office devices, sports equipment, etc.)
• Banking (ATMs, credit card readers, etc.)

In Turkey, Mechatronic Engineering education is offered at undergraduate, graduate and PhD levels. The topics related to Mechatronic Engineering are among the priority areas to be supported in our country's science and technology strategy documents. Therefore, science and technology projects related to Mechatronics are supported with priority. Many universities and businesses benefit from these supports to engage in research and development projects. Mechatronics engineers have opportunities to take part in these projects as researchers, scholarship holders and employees.

Environmental Engineering

cevre-muhendisligiIn the surveys conducted, you can see Environmental Engineering in the first place among the jobs of the future. Environmental Engineering is an engineering discipline that strives to solve problems such as minimizing the harmful effects of production process on environment, making decisions on structures and production processes that could lead to harmful effects in the future, and calculation of the environmental risk and benefit in the cheapest, the most useful, and the fastest way.

Environmental Engineering is a department with both theoretical and applied aspects. Laboratory studies are carried out especially after the second year. Work experience is gained through visiting waste facilities, performing field work to collect samples, and doing an internship during the summer. It is a field not just in the classroom but in the lab and the field with applications, projects, and social activities.

Environmental Engineering is the most sensitive engineering to the Earth. Environmental engineer works to make the world more livable with their projects. If you also have a good intention for the world as a more livable place, Environmental Engineering will be the most suitable department for you.

Why the Department of Environmental Engineering in Turkey?

Turkey has academic dynamism as a country with a very rapid development and a continuing industrialization process. In the academic field in Turkey, international symposia on Environmental Engineering, conferences, and design competitions to discuss creative ideas are held, international journals are published, and industry stimulus projects are prepared. All of these improves the quality of environmental education. Existence of more than thirty-five departments of Environmental Engineering is an indication of how important this area is seen in Turkey. Additionally, after graduating from the undergraduate, you have the option to continue post-graduate education in your own field as well as in other areas such as Energy, Chemistry, and Industry.

By receiving an Environmental Engineering education in Turkey that cares about young people and education, is rapidly developing and progressing, and provides maximum support to new projects, you can have the chance to build an engineering career as well as to be responsible individuals who can have a say on the future of the world.

Environmental Engineering Education

Environmental Engineering is one of the interdisciplinary engineering departments. An environmental engineer receives education in basic sciences such as mathematics and differential equations as well as structural courses such as mechanical and static-strength. Courses in biology concentration such as ecology, microbiology, and biological processes, and the courses in chemistry concentration such as chemical processes, environmental chemistry, and organic chemistry take place in the curriculum. Besides all this, they are in relationship with social problems such as economics, law, energy policy, global warming, population, and sustainable development. Thus, the environmental engineer has the opportunity to develop him/herself in many areas.

Environmental Engineering is generally confused with departments such as Urban and Regional Planning and Landscape Architecture. Environmental Engineering is primarily an engineering department. It consists of engineering processes about planning and design such as determination of appropriate methods of waste treatment, deciding chemical and biological methods for waste water treatment, design of these methods, removal of household waste and industrial waste, and, in relation to this, design of water networks, transmission lines, design of sewer and the facilities.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

Individuals who will study Environmental Engineering should have basic knowledge of mathematics and physics that they will need in engineering jobs. In addition to this, they are expected to be sensitive and related to global problems and social issues.

Since the Environmental Engineering works on a lot of different issues, an environmental engineer can find job opportunities in many different areas. They can serve in public institutions in the environment and agricultural field, municipalities and associated facilities such as waste water treatment plants, solid waste collection and treatment facilities, and hazardous waste disposal facilities. Proceeds can be said to be satisfactory since they are technical positions.

In addition to the public institutions, more jobs are available in the private sector that offers a wealth of opportunities in terms of career and financial opportunities. Furthermore, work such as waste water, sewage, network design can be done by forming a consulting firm consisting of a few engineers. "Environmental impact assessment report" is required for each structure and the inspection of environmental engineer is needed. They can develop new designs and products in the field of environmental technology and offer these products to international markets. Additionally, environmental engineers can find a job as an environmental officer in factories, quality systems engineer, and work safety expert.

Urban and Regional Planning

sehir-ve-bolge-planlamaCities are dynamos of civilizations. To be urban is to be 'civilized'. Today, more than half of the world's population lives in cities and metropolitan areas. As the urbanization rate continues to increase, making cities more livable spaces for urban residents stands out as an inevitable duty to fulfill.

The Department of Urban and Regional Planning aims to equip its students with the knowledge, skills, and perspective required for making sure that urbanization occurs in a rational and aesthetic manner bearing in mind all segments of society, and for efficiently and accurately solving all the problems resulting from the unplanned growth and development of cities.

Why Department of Urban and Regional Planning in Turkey

Turkey entered a rapid process of urbanization starting from the second half of the 20th century, and as of the end of 2012, 77,3 % of the population resides in urban areas (cities and county seats.)This rapid urbanization process constitutes a significant potential for the development of the country on the one hand, while on the other it brings about a great many spatial, economic, social and political challenges.

This process has increased the amount of attention shown to the discipline of urban and regional planning, making urban planners sorely needed professionals. Issues such as urban transformation, urban renovation, pedestrianization, transportation and bridge-building projects, discussions around choosing the right places for education, health and cultural centers are directly related to the profession of urban and regional planning and are also currently adding more and more items to the country's agenda.

Urban and Regional Planning Education

The Departments of Urban and Regional Planning in Turkey are often grouped under two departments: Urban Planning and Regional Planning. The Department of Urban Planning presents a planning framework on an urban scale, while the Department of Regional Planning, on an upper scale, focuses on socio-economic plans and policies, and the implications of these on the physical space.

And the Urban Design program, through its interdisciplinary content (architecture, urban and regional planning, landscape architecture), contributes to the development of the physical form and spatial quality of cities and the reorganization of their transformed parts.

Urban and Regional Planning students have the possibility of enrolling in a double-major program (DMP) in some universities in such departments as architecture, landscape architecture, and geomatics engineering, thereby eventually obtaining two diplomas. The Department of Urban and Regional Planning cooperates closely with graduate programs in real estate development, housing and earthquake, disaster management, transportation planning, and local governments.

Even though the Department of Urban and Regional Planning is focused primarily on "the space", it has an interdisciplinary character that takes into account the social, economic, and political inputs embedded in the space. For this reason, the students of this department take courses on sociology, economics, statistics, law, geography, geology, environment and architecture in addition to the 'town planning projects' which form the backbone of the curriculum.

The main course of every semester, 'town planning projects', is designed to help students to better analyze and understand the notion of space and society through on-site inspections and analyses, and thus to sharpen their planning and designing capabilities. As part of these projects, a workspace is selected at the beginning of each semester. Based on the content of the project, this workspace may be a residential unit of a rural character, a large metropolitan area, or a part of a city. A four or five-day trip of technical sort is made to the selected place with the participation of all of the students and the teaching staff. On this trip, field research and surveys are conducted; all of the actors around the residential place (municipal, prefectural, government officials, or officials from NGOs etc.) are consulted to get all the relevant and latest field data. The students, for the next one semester or two, are equipped with a notion of planning, politics, and design to make this residential area more livable through the knowledge and skills they acquired in the theoretical courses and with the assistance of the project implementers.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

The Department of Urban and Regional Planning accepts students based on numerical score. Although the curriculum and some course contents include numerical applications and techniques, the department, overall, does not necessitate a numerical knowledge and capability to an extent that would challenge the students. In this respect, it stands closer to social sciences. However, designing and drawing skills, an aesthetic view, and a superior social and spatial perception are among the factors that contribute to the success level of the students.

The Department of Urban and Regional Planning is a new and rapidly developing area, and because of this, almost all of its graduates experience no difficulty in finding jobs. The graduates of the department can be employed in many public institutions and establishments related to the fields of town planning, environment, tourism and development, and also as city planners, specialists and unit heads in the zoning, planning, GIS (Geographical Information Systems), etc. departments of municipalities or in development agencies. They may also be considered for a number of different positions in special planning, architecture and design offices, in companies of real estate appraisal and public housing, and in banks and industrial companies. Another possibility is that they can set up their own private planning offices and be self-employed.

We can cite İhan Tekeli as a leading figure in the field of urban planning.

Those who have something to say about the city will take great pleasure from training in the department of urban and regional planning!

Textile Engineering

tekstilDressing is one of the most natural acts that people do. Human began to dress as a natural necessity, and over time they extended this natural act to incorporate different tastes. They invented fashion, designing all kinds of clothing, and with the help of technology they as far as to develop clothes to be used during space travel. Nowadays, it is textile engineering that determines the development dynamics of the clothes sector that has taken on a different character with the development of a great deal of new technologies. This area of engineering conducts education and research on processing raw textile materials by different techniques and developing new techniques for the same purpose.

Apart from being indispensable parts of our lives, clothing, home textiles, and furnishing fabrics, textile products can also be high-end technological tools used in the making of communication satellites and electronic circuit designs in information technology systems. For example, very light and durable fibers used in aircraft wings, clothing and equipment used by astronauts as heat and radiation shields, artificial organs, blood vessels, muscles, and geo-textiles used in buildings are among high-tech textile products.

Why Department of Textile Engineering in Turkey

Thanks to its technological innovation and accumulation of technical knowledge and experience, textile industry has become a modern and developed sector in Turkey, making significant contributions to the country's industrial development, employment opportunities, and trade. Its structure allows it to be open to foreign markets, and it works hand in hand with foreign industry. The Turkish textile industrial sector has the greatest export revenues in terms of both workforce and finished products. It is highly likely for a foreign student who has finished an undergraduate or graduate program in Turkey in this field to take part in the network of trade between the two countries and function as a commercial envoy.

Based on the data available at hand and the future prospects, it is surmised that textile products will be integrated with nanotechnology, which is viewed by many experts in the field as the technology of the future. Among today's frequent topics of discussion in this field are a series of innovations that will greatly improve the functionality of textile products such as new fiber structures, flexible and lightweight composite materials, micro and nano coatings, and wearable electronic devices that will be able to measure blood pressure based on the pulse beat or diagnose a disease based on the body heat. The scientific studies and research projects conducted in Turkish universities, which closely follow these developments, are supported and funded by both TÜBİTAK and the private sector. In the education of Textile Engineering, training programs are swiftly updated in accordance with the changing needs of the textile industry, and their basic contents of knowledge are easily renewed in line with the expectations of the industrialists of the field.

Education of Textile Engineering

The graduate education of the department is four years. The courses given during this phase are basic sciences such as mathematics, physics, and chemistry; engineering courses such as static, material, resistance, dynamic, electrical machinery, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, and automatic control as well as vocational courses such as the principles of weaving, textile chemistry, quality control, weaving preparation, cotton spinning, wool spinning, and pattern designing. Students attend both theoretical and practical courses and undergo internship training in summer.

At the graduate level, if the department applied to is different from one's major, for instance, a candidate coming from Mechanical Engineering applies to Industrial or Textile Engineering, this student is required to receive preparatory training (often varying between six or eight courses).

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational level for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically in three dimensions and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions.

The main responsibilities of a textile engineer are to identify and differentiate natural, artificial and synthetic fibers; select convenient raw materials that will meet the standards of comfort and performance expected for a textile product; manage the conditions that affect production efficiency and product quality, and solve problems; and implement technological designs and engineering-based approaches on the multifaceted design, production and control of fibers, yarns, fabrics, and ready-made textile products. Textile engineers can work in factories and commercial establishments of this field in any unit of theirs from planning to production, and from sales and marketing to research, development, and purchasing.

Automotive Engineering

otomotivArchaeological remnants clearly show that first vehicles emerged after the discovery of wheel and sledge around 3000 BC and first age people used two-wheel combat cars. The automobiles used today appeared when many discoveries in the last 100 years around the world came together.

The automotive engineering' area of interests include vehicles made to carry passengers and freight in road traffic, design and production of vehicles used in agriculture, construction and defence, assembly of parts manufactured by ancillary industries, as well as automation, quality control, protection of environment and safety matters.

The most technology intense and disciplined industry in the world is the automotive industry after space and aircraft industry. Recently Research & Development costs have been increasing due to strong competition between auto makers and the large number of technologies used in cars. In particular, issues such as manufacturing technologies, alternative materials, new engine technologies, environmental contamination, safety, alternative fuels, design of electric and hybrid cars, and fuel cells have been increasing in importance. Software and information issues are also gaining importance due to increased share of electronics used in car-making technologies.

Why Automotive Engineering in Turkey?

Automotive industry affects many sectors and provides high added value to economy in terms of work capacity and employment. Fast developing automotive industry accounts for one fifth of the total exports of Turkey today. Technology-based competitive advantage must be attained to sustain these improvements, meet anticipated targets and compete in international arena.

Supporting projects in electric cars, car design and dynamic, stimulus systems and fuels, and product development within Turkey's strategic goals concerns entire country. Hybrid cars in the short run and fuel-battery cars in the long run are expected to seriously enter the automotive market. The largest research institution in Turkey announced allocation of a large budget for electric car projects at the start of the year. This and similar projects are strongly expected to continue through upcoming decades.

Automotive Engineering Education

The fast changing motorised vehicle technologies and their increasing sophistication require well-educated and highly skilled people to be employed in the industry. The main courses delivered in Automotive Engineering programmes are as follows: Elasticity, Analytical Methods in Engineering, Advanced Dynamics, State Space Control Theory, Fracture Mechanics, Advanced Applications of Finite Element Method, Advanced Mechanical Vibrations, Design of Mechanisms, Advanced Energy Conversion Systems, Robust Control, Advanced Vehicle Dynamics ,Vehicle Control, Kinetics of Processes in Materials Science, Materials Characterisation Techniques , Advanced Mechanical Properties of Materials, Fatigue and Fracture, Engine Design, Emission and Exhaust Control, Internal Combustion Engines, Vehicle Aerodynamics, Automotive Control Systems.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

The level of mathematical and scientific background determines the required training when entering all engineering departments in Turkey. Moreover analytical thinking, predisposition towards mechanical systems and mathematical expressions, and 3-dimensional thinking ability are important skills in the 4-year engineering training. These skills also facilitate understanding of engineering courses provided such as fundamental sciences mathematics, physics and chemistry, and statics, materials, resistance, thermodynamics, liquids mechanics, heat transmittance and automatic control.

For postgraduate research, if applied area is different than undergraduate area of study, for example if a Mechanical Engineering graduate applies to Industrial or Food Engineering, this student needs to take a 1 year preparatory training, ranging between 6 and 8 courses should he get accepted in the course.

Automotive industry and its relations with ancillary industries create vast employment opportunities. Based on 2010 data, there are 15 auto manufacturers in Turkey and large number of firms producing spare parts and auto components, most of which are SMLs (small-medium-large companies).

Automotive engineers work in product design, automation and control, production logistics, R&D, system integration, sales and marketing areas. Graduates of the programme can be employed in automobile factories as well as in R&D, design, sales and marketing units of automotive firms. Automotive engineers can work in companies manufacturing passenger vehicles, cars, tow trucks, bus and coaches, motorcycles as well as working in sub-industry companies producing engines, chassis and other components of the vehicle.

Nanotechnology

nanoteknolojiNanotechnology is the fundamental technology of the 21st century's industrial revolution. Those who can control nanotechnology will be able to control the industry as well.

Michiharu Nakamura

One of the basic questions scientists working in this field have asked themselves is how much smaller matter can get on an atomic and molecular scale. They set out on this quest to find the indivisible many years ago. The word "atom", which we very often use in our daily lives now, was coined with the combination of "tomos", which means "divisible", (originally "temno" for "I cut"), and the negativity prefix of "a", "not", making it literally mean "uncuttable" or "indivisible" in Greek. The discovery of the atom, defined as the smallest unit of matter, at the beginning of the 19th century has been accepted as the most realistic revolution in the world of science. With every decade that passes, more and more important research opportunities inherent in this discovery come to light. The attractive power of the subatomic world, as underlined in a speech by Feymann in the 1970s, has opened the door to a new world for scientists: Nanotechnology.

Many experts believe that nanotechnology will leave an indelible mark on the 21st century as a new industrial and information revolution. In the near future, the level a country has risen to in regard to nanotechnology will be the indicator of its economic power. It is anticipated that nanotechnology will make its presence felt primarily in the fields of material and biotechnology. When this technology is used more extensively in the coming years, it will be possible to produce thoroughly cleaner, more durable, lighter and more sensitive products.

Why Department of Nanotechnology in Turkey

It is thought that nanotechnology will have started to greatly impact on our lives before we reach the middle of the current century . Turkey has already started to take the necessary steps in order to produce nanotechnology. TÜBİTAK's Vision 2023 Program contains nanotechnology, and a road map has been regarding the steps to be taken. In this program, one of the main defined goals is to develop nanotechnologies in many research fields including health.

The most important development in the field of nanotechnology in Turkey is the establishment of the National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM) at Bilkent University.In the Middle East Technical University (METU), the METU-CENTER project has been launched. METU-CENTER is a three-year project within the Seventh Framework SSA of the European Union designed to improve and strengthen the human, information, and device infrastructure in the Central Lab of the METU in the fields of nano-technology and nanosciences, multifunctional materials, new production processes and devices, and biology-biotechnology. In addition, centers such as the Gebze Institute of High Technology, and the TÜBİTAK Marmara Research Center are places where nanotechnology research is carried out.

Nanotechnology Education

In Turkey, nanotechnology education is given only at the graduate level. The number of nanotechnology programs opened in universities at the graduate and doctoral levels is increasing day by day. The education given in master's and doctoral programs covers the following areas: understanding and analyzing the physical and chemical traits of nanometer-scale structures; giving theoretical background to nanotechnology applications in many different areas; producing more durable and lighter materials with better electrical and thermal conduction; reducing the use of materials in the desired macro-level instrument; using designs that will minimize energy use; forming the required theoretical and mathematical infrastructure for the production of single and multi-layered functional sensors in a wide range of application fields such as telecommunications, healthcare, defense, environment, energy, and so on.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

Although nanotechnology covers many branches of science, it will give rise to quite striking developments particularly in the medical field. As a result of a series of research in materials science, nanotubes, stronger than steel but much more lightweight and flexible, were made of nano-sized carbon. Graphene, one of the most advanced fields of the study into nanotubes, has been identified by the European Union as one of the "flagship" projects among the research subjects of 2013. This project will take place in Turkey's Sabancı University. The decreasing of the price of carbon nanotubes, whose current production cost renders them impossible to use in daily life, depends on the mass production of graphene.

As understood from the work areas mentioned above, the programs which the students who want to work in this field may apply to are available only at the master's and doctoral levels. Therefore, depending on the undergraduate program they finished, they may be required to receive preparatory training. Owing to the importance Turkish engineering departments attach to micro/nano-level systems, graduates of all engineering programs can apply to these master's and doctoral programs. The acceptance of the application mainly depends on the student's grade point average (GPA). However, a paper or article published during undergraduate education may provide a significant advantage for being accepted to the program.

Since the sector has only recently started to develop, the only job opportunity seems to be in the academic field.

Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

MetalurjiHumanity has always interacted with its surroundings, and tried to make use of the various materials in its environment in accordance with its needs and the circumstances of its era. Over the centuries, in order to meet all of its needs, humanity has made a vast number of things from the manually-made tools made BC to the mass-produced microchips today. Engineering studies continuously carried out today mostly focus on the development of new materials. These studies are made in a broad range of fields from artificial human tissues to electronic materials.

The science of materials is a branch that examines the traits of materials, their structures at the atomic level and their behaviour, and also explores new types of materials, thus making it possible for these newly-discovered materials to be used in various industrial areas. The most widely researched area over the next twenty years will be materials to be produced using micro/nano-fabrication techniques.

Metallurgical and Materials Engineering is today a multidisciplinary branch of science and technology operating particularly in the chemical, machinery, construction, space-flight, electrical and electronics, environmental, and medical fields. It plays an important role in bridging the gap between production processes that run in harmony with the trio of efficiency, energy, and raw materials, and the sectors that need them. The advances in Metallurgical and Materials Engineering in the recent years have taken place generally in the optimization of metallurgical production processes, digital simulation, and modelling, while in the environmental metallurgical applications, issues such as the treatment of wastes to make them environmentally friendly have been prominent.

Why Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering in Turkey

Many branches of industry in Turkey have entered a phase of re-structuring and launched projects of research and development owing to the growing momentum of production initiatives in the country. This process has significantly enhanced the interaction between industry and university, because the first institutional initiative toward these research topics is supposed to be made by universities. The Departments of Materials Engineering in Turkey are indeed the institutions that will lead such projects to success with their laboratory facilities located in their premises and their experience in computational sciences.

When the research opportunities and budgets of the leading Turkish universities are scrutinized, this major development may be clearly observed. These universities have in their possession devices that allow them to carry out much more advanced research projects, all in all going far beyond the minimum requirements for the conduction of the research projects in question. International scientific publications are at the same time an important indicator of the quality of the research projects.

The increasing needs of many fast developing sectors such as the industries of defence, energy, telecommunications, and automotive - with aerospace taking the lead - have made it obligatory to develop newer high-performance materials. As a result, polymers, ceramics, and composites have caught up with and are now abreast of metallic materials, thereby enriching engineering materials considerably. The indispensable nature of knowledge accumulated during processes of research and development has become an integral part of university programs on account of the growing need to produce new materials.

Education of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

Metallurgical and Materials Engineering basically examines four main types of materials: Metals; ceramics, used at high temperatures that metals cannot withstand; polymers, used in the production of every day goods; and composites, which all these three materials come together to form. This field of engineering analyzes these materials' internal structures that can be seen using various kinds of microscopes, their measurable mechanical, optical, electronic, and magnetic properties using specifically designed devices and by artificially creating certain conditions through various computer programs; it also examines their production simulations, chemical and physical contents using various analytical instruments, and the production scenarios for their experimental and real-life use, and implements these stages in the industrial sectors that need them.

In this engineering program, particular emphasis is placed on the factors that affect the correlation between micro-structures and resistance, and the behaviour of the materials while being used. Since a design is mostly limited by the traits of the materials being used, materials are of pivotal importance in all branches of engineering. The developments in the field of materials give birth to ever changing design criteria, but this makes it possible for new products with newer designs to be produced. Therefore, most of the programs in engineering faculties offer at least one course about the Materials Science and Engineering.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational level for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions. These qualifications also facilitate the students in courses specific to engineering departments.

At the graduate level, if the department applied to is different from one's major, for instance, a candidate coming from Mechanical Engineering applies to Materials or Food Engineering, this student is required to receive preparatory training (often varying between six or eight courses) upon being accepted.

The graduates of this program earn the title of "Metallurgical and Materials Engineer." Graduates can work in many different areas and industries such as facilities that produce iron, steel, and non-ferrous metals (aluminum, copper, etc.), the metal casting industry, the automotive industry, traditional and high-tech ceramic manufacturing facilities, heat treatment companies, material research and development centers, the defence industry, quality control firms, surveillance companies, and biomedical applications.

Mechanical Engineering

makinaThe most important element helping us to follow human activities in the course of history is the tools humans produced and left behind. The problems encountered in the tool-making process and development of production processes to counter and solve these challenges resulted in the development of faster, stronger and more durable tools. These tools allowing humans to do activities beyond their biological limits are named machinery in time. Mechanical Engineering has been an engineering branch whereby it provides all engineering areas a common ground to interact since 1870's when it was defined as a new education field in all world universities.

Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that performs works related to mechanical system design, analysis, manufacturing, maintenance using fundamental physics principles, and offers analytical solutions to problems using mathematical models.

Why Mechanical Engineering in Turkey?

As around the World, Mechanical Engineering is one of the first established engineering branches in Turkey. Its graduates have taken roles in all country-wide large engineering projects since its establishment. It maintains an indispensable position regarding the future planning process.

The most prominent research subjects related to mechanical engineering in Turkey are advanced material technologies and development of micro/nano dimensional mechanical systems. Robotic studies in human-machinery interactions are supported by research institutions in Turkey. Remote-controlled vehicles, robotic designs capable of taking/carrying micro images are designated as priority research areas.

In addition, to improve production efficiency, manufacturing of machinery with less vibration and sound values, as well as faster and stronger properties is supported by heavy industry institutions by large research funds.

Mechanical Engineering Education

A four-year Mechanical Engineering graduate will be able to design mechanical and heating processes, their components and systems, use computer software in engineering design and analysis, hold qualifications to make positive contributions to institutions performing Research & Development activities.

As in all engineering programmes, first years are intense on mathematics, physics and chemistry courses. In later years engineering courses such as thermodynamics, static, dynamic, resistance, liquids mechanics, electric, electronics, machine components, quantitative methods, structure-materials, heat transfer are delivered.

Mechanical Engineering is a creative profession where designs of machinery, systems and mechanical processes are carried out. The fundamental study areas of Mechanical Engineering are: Machine Theory and Dynamics, Solid Objects Mechanics, Liquids Mechanics-Thermodynamics, Design and Manufacturing. In addition, the recently developing disciplines such as mechatronics and biomechanics are in the areas of interest.

The training and research laboratories in Turkey's prominent Mechanical Engineering institutions are: Biomechanics Laboratory, Automation and Bionic Systems Laboratory, Automobile and Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Automatic Control Laboratory, Plasticizers and Metal Shaping Laboratory.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

The level of mathematical and scientific background determines the required training when entering all engineering departments in Turkey. Moreover analytical thinking, predisposition towards mechanical systems and mathematical expressions, and 3-dimensional thinking ability are important in the 4-year engineering training. These skills also facilitate understanding of engineering courses provided such as fundamental sciences mathematics, physics and chemistry, and statics, materials, resistance, thermodynamics, liquids mechanics, heat transmittance and automatic control.

For postgraduate research, if applied area is different than undergraduate area of study, for example if a Food Engineering graduate applies to Industrial or Mechanical Engineering, this student needs to take a 1 year preparatory training, ranging between 6 and 8 courses should he get accepted in the course.

Although job prospects depend on the particular industry, mechanical engineers can, in general, assume roles in engineering offices as responsible engineer from design, in Research & Development laboratories as well as working in manufacturing, construction, energy and textile industries in various, positions ranging from planning to quality control.

Aviation Engineering

havacilikHuman beings never stopped the pursuit of curiosity throughout history. This curiosity often led us to studying the sky. The desire to fly goes back to ancient eras. Many studies and experiments committed to this purpose are encountered in the history of science.

Aviation engineers perform research related to design, projection, production, maintenance technologies and operation of all types of vehicles moving in the sky or space, decides which and why production system required to manufacture planes is more economical. Carries our initial design, performs experiments and determines performance properties of the designed aircraft using necessary analytical skills.

Why Aviation Engineering in Turkey?

Today many advanced aircrafts have been developed, among them supersonic airplanes, satellites that can perform their duties outside atmosphere for many years. There are even space shuttles capable of showing the location of humans in the space from the outer space. The next goal is manufacturing aircrafts that are lighter, faster, more environment-friendly and emitting less noise. These goals will only materialise by the means of well-programmed and highly qualified education institutions. We can comfortably say that aviation engineering departments in Turkey meet these qualifications.

The most important project TUBITAK and Undersecretariat of Defence are working on is manufacturing Turkey's own aircraft. In this vein, the first important and sustainable research project is a helicopter project developed by ITU. In addition, all research units involved in the aircraft manufacturing continue to work with universities and Turkish Airlines in technical matters. Regarding space studies, the recently orbited Gokturk-2 satellite was manufactured entirely by Turkish engineering resources. In addition to this important project, TUBITAK Space continues to work to produce engines that will work in satellites moving by electrical propulsion in space.

Aviation Engineering Education

The duration of undergraduate education is four years. Graduates are awarded with a bachelor diploma and "Space Engineer/Aircraft Engineer/Aviation Engineer" title. There are two institutions providing Aviation Engineering training in Turkey: Istanbul Technical University operates two separate undergraduate programmes under the names of "Aircraft Engineering" and "Space Engineering". Middle East Technical University operates a similar undergraduate programme under the name of "Aviation and Space Engineering". Both universities offer postgraduate and doctoral research programmes.

As in all engineering programmes, the curriculum is intense on mathematics, physics and chemistry in the first years. In later years, courses such as thermodynamics, static, dynamic, resistance, liquid mechanics, electric and electronics, aerodynamics, gas dynamics, structure-materials, propulsion systems and heat systems are delivered. Examples of courses delivered in postgraduate programmes are: Introduction to Aircraft Performance, Propulsion Systems Automatic Control Systems, Aircraft Engine Design, Introduction to Rocket Technology, Introduction to Helicopter Aerodynamics and Helicopter Design, Finite Element Applications in Aerospace Structures, Space Propulsion, Wind Energy and Wind Turbine Technology.

Some of the research areas of Aviation Engineering are: Experimental aerodynamics and liquids dynamics, combustion and turbulence in internally combustive engines, unmanned aerial vehicles, composite materials, structural design, control systems, robotic control, satellite design, helicopter design and prototype manufacturing.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

The level of mathematical and scientific background determines the required training when entering all engineering departments in Turkey. Moreover analytical thinking, predisposition towards mechanical systems and mathematical expressions, and 3-dimensional thinking ability are important in the 4-year engineering training. These skills also facilitate understanding of engineering courses provided such as fundamental sciences mathematics, physics and chemistry, and statics, materials, resistance, thermodynamics, liquids mechanics, heat transmittance and automatic control.

For postgraduate research, if the applied area is different from the undergraduate area of study, for example if a Mechanical Engineering graduate applies to Industrial or Aviation Engineering, this student needs to take a 1 year preparatory training, ranging between 6 and 8 courses (should they be accepted on to the course).

In addition to above mentioned areas, Aviation Engineering contributes to research, development and design in other industry fields such as ground vehicles. Therefore Aircraft/Space engineers have vast job prospects ranging from defence and aircraft industry to automotive industry. In this vein among the main work areas of Aircraft/Space engineers are: Commercial airlines, flight/aircraft maintenance companies, automotive industry, academic career at universities.

Electrical and Electronics Engineering

elektrikTransistors, the lifeblood of electronic circuits developed in 1948, are recognized as one of the most important inventions of the 20th century. A team of three consisting of John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, headed by William Shockley, shared the Nobel Prize in 1956 for this groundbreaking invention in the field of technology made in the research laboratories of Bell, the greatest telephone company in the world at the time. This turning point in the history of technology caused a fundamental change in communication, production methods, media, publication, and even in our daily lives. The field of engineering that realized this great change was named "Electrical and Electronics Engineering."

Why Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering in Turkey

The electrical and electronics industry in Turkey started out as an assembly industry about 40-50 years ago, and entering a rapid development phase from the second half of the 20th century, it became an essential sector for all industrial branches in the 21st century. Turkey's electrical and electronics industry is proving to be the 21st century's greatest workforce with its market volume totaling $ 1 trillion in the world. Given the market volume of this field totaling $1 trillion in the world as of the first decade of the 21st century, Turkey has a promising electrical and electronics industry with a great workforce and potential compared to its competitors in the world. The key factor in reaching this great workforce and potential is the efforts and success of some major engineering departments in Turkey.

In all of the major sub-sectors of the electrical-electronics industry, Turkey's essential goal is to establish a rich research infrastructure, and it already has most of the knowledge and experience required to this end. The business volume in this sector has been on the rise, and research-development investments are funded by big-budget projects undertaken by private companies and government agencies. Projects oriented towards advanced technology that are implemented with the financial support provided for universities offer research opportunities to a large number of master's and doctoral students.

The export performance of the young and dynamic Turkish electrical-electronics industry has been continuously growing particularly on account of high-quality products presented to the world markets especially in the last few years. Based on its current upward trajectory, it is thought that the Turkish electronics industry will achieve significant market shares in foreign markets due to its skilled labor, high engineering quality, and product diversity. To reach these goals, Electrical and Electronics Engineering education is playing a major role.

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Education

The theoretical classes in the programs offered by Electrical and Electronics Engineering departments are supported by practical classes, lab hours, and computer simulations. Thirty-three percent of all class hours in the first five semesters are allotted for practice and the lab.

Electrical and Electronics Engineering is divided into nine departments, and they overlap in areas of basic research. Electromagnetic Waves, Microwave Techniques and Optics focuses on the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation, remote sensing and RF-MEMS. Microelectronics deals with microelectronic design and applications, devices of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), the manufacture of integrated circuits, circuit and system design, and simulation. This department also covers the areas of radio frequency systems, biomedical microsystems, and organic electronics. Telecommunications trains specialists in wireless channel characterization, modulation systems, and error-correcting codes. Numerical modulation, OFDM, broadband communications, error correcting codes, and information processing theory fall under this category. Electrical Machinery and Equipment develops the designs of circuit and control systems, and their analyses and applications; also falling into this context electrical machinery design and control (analog and digital), electric power generation, transmission, distribution and quality, power electronics, and power generation from renewable energy sources.

Research projects carried out in these areas are financed by government programs, national programs such as TÜBITAK and COST, and by various international sources such as European Union Framework Programs.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational infrastructure for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically in three dimensions and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions. Why these qualities are sought in the student candidates is that they greatly facilitate them through the basic courses on mathematics, physics, and chemistry given in all engineering departments throughout the program, and through engineering courses such as statics, material, resistance, dynamics, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, and automatic control.

At the graduate level, if the department applied to is different from one's major, for instance, a candidate coming from Mechanical Engineering applies to Industrial or Electrical-Electronics Engineering, this student is required to receive preparatory training (often varying between six or eight courses).

Engineers trained in this area have the advantage of being able to work in a very wide range of fields. They can work in related engineering firms as "R & D engineer ", "project engineer," or "software engineer"; in any unit of companies and factories, and in banks as "administrator", as "field engineer" responsible for managing a team on the site; as "design engineer" in related business fields; as "maintenance engineer" at the head of a team responsible for installation, repair and maintenance; as "planning engineer" responsible for resource planning in enterprises; as "purchasing engineer" responsible for the procurement of raw materials and supplies in factories; as "sales engineer" responsible for marketing a manufactured product or product part to companies and factories; and as "application and project supervisor", "controller" or "site manager" in building inspection firms.

Earthquake Engineering

depremThe collective building activity triggered by the need of housing has increased parallel with the spread of people in the world, and this spread has always demonstrated a natural mobility. Earthquake Engineering is a field of engineering that evaluates various buildings and structures for their ability to withstand earthquakes. It conducts studies parallel with Construction and Geophysical engineering. It is defined as a sub-branch of structural engineering but has, over time, separated from structural engineering to define its own area of expertise.

The primary definition of Earthquake Engineering is to plan to minimize material and spiritual losses caused by earthquakes that pose natural geological risks in community development. The duty of researchers in this field is to conduct research and development activities in order to minimize the impact of all geological risks (earthquakes, floods, soil / rock / mass movements, volcanic eruptions).

Why Department of Earthquake Engineering in Turkey?

Today, the housing stock in Turkey is largely devoid of earthquake safety, particularly that of Istanbul. "National Earthquake Strategy and Action Plan (UDSEP 2023)" has been drawn up for the first time with the goal of reducing the risk of earthquake, creating a society that is prepared and resilient enough to cope with earthquakes, and determining priorities for R&D activities on the subject. The main purpose of this plan is to prevent or reduce any "physical, economic, social, environmental and political damage an earthquake may cause and to create earthquake-resistant, safe, prepared and sustainable new living environments." The most important basic scientific research plans of UDSEP 2023 can be outlined as follows: continuous measurement and modeling of crustal deformation monitoring via national and local networks; the structure and geo-dynamic evolution of the earth's crust; studying the properties of wave propagation of earthquakes; the research on fault zone crust breaking processes; the research on aftershocks, storms, earthquakes and earthquake surface ruptures; updating the Active Fault Mapping of Turkey with active tectonics and active fault studies; observing anomalies that occur before, during, and after earthquakes with systematic and scientific multidisciplinary approaches.

With the outlining of the general plan, many guided projects have begun to be implemented. Turkey is committed to strongly incentivizing all kinds of projects in the field of Earthquake Engineering within its borders. This commitment means that undergraduate and graduate students who want to develop themselves will be able to participate in significant projects and enhance their experience in this field.

Earthquake Engineering Education

Earthquake engineering and disaster management are the most important components in reducing the risk of an earthquake. Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of science that covers such topics as engineering seismology, structural engineering, infrastructure, and ground dynamics. In the recent years, building structures with earthquake-resistant designs has been extensively studied both in Turkey and around the world.

In general, course contents consist of subjects such as new cement-based materials, solid materials, mechanical properties, tensile strain capacity and cracking mechanism, strengthening the fibers used in the production of materials, micromechanics of fiber-reinforced materials, the reinforcement of stress-strain behavior of materials and special concrete used in the repair and strengthening of structures.

Civil engineers, to do graduate work in the field of earthquake engineering, need to use adequate information and understand the terminology in the reports prepared by geologists and geophysicists while working with seismic forces or when evaluating the risk of earthquakes. They also need to be acquainted with earthquake maps and seismic source zones in the country, the main principles of preparation of earthquake codes and be able to use earthquake acceleration records as dynamic loads. The students are provided with information concerning all these records. In addition, the program seeks to address some key areas such as the provision of computational methods designed to determine displacements caused by earthquakes or internal forces generally triggered by time-dependent loads, the measurement of the physical and mechanical properties of the concrete before they cause any damage in the structure, and an accurate interpretation of the results.

In graduate education, one year (ranging from 6 to 8 courses) of preparatory education must be taken if the student has graduated from a different department.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational infrastructure for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions. Why these qualities are sought in the student candidates is that they greatly facilitate them through the basic courses on mathematics, physics, and chemistry given in all engineering departments throughout the program, and through engineering courses such as statics, material, resistance, dynamics, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, and automatic control.

The primary working areas of earthquake engineers are as follows: the making of anti-earthquake designs of reinforced concrete, steel and masonry structures; the evaluation of existing structures, including bridges, in terms of earthquake resistance, and undertaking the necessary repair and strengthening works; the experimental examination of the behavior of structural elements; the non-linear analysis of structures under earthquake loads; earthquake damage estimation methods; the stochastic modeling of earthquake motion; the ground-structure interaction; and passive and active controls against seismic movements.

Biomedical Engineering

BiyomedikalBiomedical Engineering is an interdisciplinary study area that combines areas related to living organisms such as medical science and biology as well as mathematics, physics and chemistry. Thanks to this recent interdisciplinary approach that removes the disconnection between engineering and medical sciences, groups comprised of engineers and health experts conduct Research & Development studies together. The cooperation of engineering and medical sciences is carried out successfully in health industry and science.

Since the word "bio" means life, the effects of bioengineering are felt in every part of life. By life, we mean living organisms. Engineering research methods can be applied to all research areas related to life through biomedical engineering. Bioengineers can take active roles in medical science areas such as genetic, biomarking, inoculation and medicine production & design, stem cells, developmental biology, tissue engineering; also seed engineering and efficiency improvement in agriculture areas; biofuel in energy areas; production, development, functional foods in food areas; and recycling in environmental areas.

Why Biomedical Engineering in Turkey?

Turkey is one of the prominent countries in terms of the quality of health services. The fact that many people from European countries come to Turkey for health treatments indicate this notion. Although the quality of medical education is important to make Turkey a centre of attraction for health services, the hospitals equipped with modern medical devices also play a significant role. The use of biomedical machinery has become widespread recently, leading to better and more widespread service support. As a natural result of this, the need for qualified and experienced personnel has increased. To meet the increasing demand, new biomedical engineering departments and vocational schools were launched in private and state universities.

The pursuit of new technological developments in biomedical areas as well as use of latest techniques in experiments and research improves the quality of training. Medical analysis facilities are especially developed in cancer research and brain operations based research.

Biomedical Engineering Education

Biomedical engineering is a fast developing, dynamic field that aims to contribute to human health through development of new technologies. The main study areas include: to design and produce medical equipment such as pacemakers, artificial organs and dialysis devices; to design and install electronic systems that monitor patient's condition during surgery and intensive care; to design and take an active role in the production of medical screening systems such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance, roentgen and angio etc.; to develop mathematical and computer models to quantitatively examine physical systems such as circulation, digestion, respiration, neural etc. systems; to design new biomaterials for treatments and test their usability; to apply new engineering techniques to medical science; to assume responsibility for technical services of medical equipments and consultation tasks related to them.

One of the areas where the need for qualified personnel is high is Biomedical Engineering. Graduates of Electric-Electronics, Mechanical, Computer, Chemistry and Material Engineering programmes can carry on their education in Biomedical Engineering. Biomedical Engineering is one of the prioritised areas for postgraduate research in Turkey, hence scholarship opportunities are abundant.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

The level of mathematical and scientific background determines the required training when entering all engineering departments in Turkey. Moreover analytical thinking, predisposition towards mechanical systems and mathematical expressions, and 3-dimensional thinking ability are important in the 4-year engineering training. These skills also facilitate understanding of engineering courses provided such as fundamental sciences mathematics, physics and chemistry, and statics, materials, resistance, thermodynamics, liquids mechanics, heat transmittance and automatic control.

For postgraduate research, if applied area is different than undergraduate area of study, for example if a Mechanical Engineering graduate applies to Industrial or Biomedical Engineering, this student needs to take a 1 year preparatory training, ranging between 6 and 8 courses should he get accepted in the course.

Two important industries that steer world trade and technology are defence and health industries. Until recently the need for Biomedical engineers was filled by close branches such as Electric-Electronic, Mechanical, Chemistry. However the demand for Biomedical Engineers has exceptionally risen in recent years. Biomedical engineers can work in every area of health sector. Thanks to their expertise in design, manufacture, marketing, R&D, and calibration, their job prospects range from hospitals, to prosthesis production, from medication industry to single use medicines. Biomedical Engineers can be employed in health institutions as well as in supply and procurement firms serving these institutions.

Computer Engineering

bilgisayarHumankind has been interested in mathematics since time immemorial, and as part of this interest, one of the most intriguing questions they produced is what in fact infinity is. The answers provided to this question proved quite insufficient and actually meaningless upon the great advancement achieved by the science of mathematics until the 19th century. The definitions of infinity made in this century gave rise to significant paradoxes at the turn of the 20th century. And the developments that occurred in this field in the 1920s took on a different meaning particularly through the studies of Alan Turing. The question of what infinity is, when asked by Turing, resulted in the birth of the device called "computer." What was initially put forward as an imaginary counting machine happened to become the pioneer of the first computers.

Computer engineering deals mainly with software, programming, and algorithm. Using these sub-fields, it performs information processing and storing, calculating, and memory generating. Albeit having become distant from the fundamental question instrumental in its first creation, this device has become an integral part of our lives, and it is now widely used for many practical applications.

Why Department of Computer Engineering in Turkey

Electronic Computing Centers effectively gave birth to the establishment of the first computer engineering department in Turkey. The first Turkish university to ever use a computer was Istanbul Technical University, and as of 2009, 72 Turkish universities provide Computer Engineering programs at the undergraduate level.

Turkey has been implementing remarkable projects in the recent years, particularly as part of the 'electronic government (e-state) applications', which is underway as a major public project. TÜBİTAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) and relevant units within the state also carry out very significant projects. In addition, the number of projects run by universities with the support of their Computer Engineering departments - such as, the analysis of the genetic structure of living organisms in health education, the sub-systems that assist physicians for establishing an accurate diagnosis, digital imaging and analysis systems (i.e. computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) - is increasing rapidly.

Since some applications are popular particularly with Istanbul-based financial institutions such as those that facilitate keeping customer records and the concomitant follow-up procedures, internet banking, online services, and national or international stock market transactions call for a very strong Computer Engineering infrastructure, there are very close ties maintained between computer engineering departments and the private sector. Another field of investment where the private sector weighs heavily in terms of its research funds is computer-aided manufacturing systems. These are mainly used in large-scale factories to increase productivity in many industrial sectors. Some industries that come to mind first are the automotive, the white goods, and the textile industries. Investment and research budgets in all these areas are used by universities.

Education of Computer Engineering

The duration of a bachelor's degree in Computer Engineering is four years. The first two years of the program is mainly based on basic engineering and basic computer engineering courses. In the last two years, apart from the required courses that must be taken in computer engineering, elective courses are offered so that the students can focus their attention on particular areas of software, hardware, or various other fields of computer engineering.

A computer engineer can conduct research in a wide range of fields: A Network Designer plans, designs and installs data transferring networks. They examine the use of planned networks actively in use, and make suggestions about the provision and configuration of the lines required for a sufficient capacity and ability. A System Programmer designs, programs and maintains the system software of the computer. They decide on the optimum necessary structure to meet corporate demands. They detect the changes made by different softwares and determine the effects of these changes on the current operating systems, system designs, and the methods of programming and operating. A Database Administrator designs, maintains and oversees databases that function as memory centers of corporations. They determine the standards of the database and ensure they are fully complied with. They make definitions for the organization of information and accessing and controlling it, and they report these definitions to the relevant officials.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational level for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically in three dimensions and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions. Why these qualities are sought in the student candidates is that they greatly facilitate them through the basic courses on mathematics, physics, and chemistry given in all engineering departments throughout the program, and through engineering courses such as statics, material, resistance, dynamics, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, and automatic control.

At the graduate level, if the department applied to is different from one's major, for instance, a candidate coming from Mechanical Engineering applies to Industrial or Computer Engineering, this student is required to receive preparatory training (often varying between six or eight courses).

Graduates of the Department of Computer Engineering can work in various public or private organizations operating in the fields of management, education, industry, trade, and services, and in banks, universities, and firms that manufacture and market computer hardware. They can also work in fields of research and application such as artificial intelligence, artificial neural networks, computer graphics, image processing, embedded systems programming, mobile game programming, and data mining in the departments of research and development of research institutions and private companies. Their work areas are diversified with the advancements in information technologies and other related technologies.

Information Technology (IT)

bilisimIT combines computer and business areas and approaches information and computation processes and related algorithmic processes on the basis of computer science. A computer engineer works on the software and hardware design of computers and computer algorithms. However, an IT specialist works on the functional aspects of information technologies in addition to computer science. In other words, IT as a discipline covers the collection, processing, storage, and distribution of information in a society or various institutions from the strategic, managerial and operational aspects.

Institutions and businesses solve technological problems with computer technologies, make their processes more efficient, and thus increase their revenues. IT specialists are of vital importance as they understand the business and managing aspect of the process and are acquainted with the technology required to solve the problem. It is crystal clear that nowadays, no matter which industry they are in, companies that look to increase their revenues via technology need IT professionals.

Why IT in Turkey ?

The shrinking of the computer from the size of a room to desktop and eventually pocket size, and the fact that they make every aspect of our lives easier has rendered computer technology an indispensable part of our daily lives. With its young population, fast-growing economy and industry, Turkey is a country which has already attained a certain level of success and is rapidly adopting new technologies to make businesses in economic spheres more innovative and competitive. A rapid growth is taking place in such areas as transportation, energy, and finance, which elevate Turkey, with its young population and strategic location, to a very advantageous position, also signaling a groundbreaking change from classical economic enterprises of the past. The importance of technology in terms of global competition in such areas is of utmost importance and we can easily maintain that the need for IT professionals will continue growing increasingly. Since Turkey will accordingly become a booming center of research and development in informatics, it would be a right choice for studying in this field at both undergraduate and graduate levels.

IT Education

Information systems and technology programs offer courses on analytical thinking, mathematical methods courses, business core courses in the area and mainly courses on computer sciences, software development, algorithm design, network systems, and web programming. The curricula of IT programs in Turkish universities are made in consistency with the current trends in the world.

IT training is usually carried out through two main departments; Information Technology and Information Systems. The Information Technology department is comprised of courses on software, algorithms, and data structures. The Information Systems department focuses on database systems, computer networks, and distributed systems.

Since there are many practical courses in the curriculum, students learn to develop and optimize new and original technological systems. Turkey's rich diversity in the industrial sector makes practical courses and industrial internships more efficient. For example, a student can work on a graduation thesis about real-time software for Istanbul Stock Exchange brokers, or on the design and implementation of computer vision or auto navigation systems for unmanned aerial vehicles.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

Students who love problem-solving and dealing undauntedly with nuances when need be, and also those who enjoy dealing with computers and new technologies are more likely to succeed in the IT field. Information technology department graduates use technology to be more competitive and efficient and can be employed in all sectors from energy to finance. In particular, Turkey-educated IT experts who speak both Turkish and their native language will have the advantage of being able to work in the field of technology transfer and the integration of new technologies in international companies that do business in Europe and the Middle East and that view Turkey as a bridge to reach its surrounding countries.

Energy Engineering

enerji-muhendisligiThe most important factor sustaining the existence of life on Earth is energy. Although it has always been an integral part of our social life since the beginning of human existence, it could not be scientifically defined until the 19th century. The time that we began to use energy effectively coincides with the time when the use of steam power became widespread. Even though the most basic tools in the production, transport, and utilization of man-made devices are machines, what makes it possible for these machines to work is energy. Energy needs that have increased with the development of industry over time also make it necessary to find more energy sources. Energy sources are usually assessed into two groups: renewable and non-renewable. For example, solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy are in the renewable energy group. Whereas fossil-based energy sources that we have used in the last two centuries are defined as exhaustible, non-renewable energy.

It is the field of Energy Engineering that plans the processes of the production of high quality, continuous, cost-effective, and environmental friendly energy sources. It offers these sources to the consumers and ensures their economical use, while also developing new strategies regarding all of these issues. The application areas of Energy Engineering can be summarized as follows: the conversion of various types of energy into mechanical energy (motors, power plants and so on.); energy transfer (mechanical transfer media, heat transfer mechanisms, pipelines, etc.); and the use of energy for various purposes (transportation equipment, production tools, industrial robots, construction machinery, textile machinery, household appliances, etc.).

Why the Department of Energy Engineering in Turkey?

When we consider all the energy sources that we have (oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear energy, alternative energy sources), the amount of energy consumed is increasing by the day, and as industrialization continues at this speed, the increase in consumption will also continue. Energy is used first and foremost in the housing sector, industry, transport, and the industrial production sector. Technology is exploring ways to use energy more efficiently.

Considering all these data, exploring clean, cheap, reliable, and efficient sources in the field of energy is given great emphasis by organizations that support scientific projects. The discipline of Energy Engineering was separated from Mechanical Engineering in Turkish universities becoming a distinct department in the light of such important developments and has further been restructured in recent years. Today, all the theoretical and practical courses a student of energy engineering is required to take are available in the curricula of Energy Engineering programs in Turkish universities. Research projects done after education are given project-based support by public and private institutions alike.

With a large number of projects at the stage of planning or implementation in its portfolio, Turkey is an energy corridor at the intersection of oil and natural gas pipelines from North to South, and from East to West. Especially through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and the Kirkuk-Yumurtalik oil pipelines, and with the establishment of the "Industrial Zone for Energy Specialization", the region Turkey is in has become an energy hub of the world. One of Turkey's most important objectives in the coming years is to train energy engineers with the ability to meet the great need that will be felt in such energy hub regions for competent and qualified personnel, who will provide technical consultancy services to the enterprises to be established and assist them in the creation of industrial research and development projects.

Energy Engineering Education

Many Turkish universities have opened undergraduate and graduate programs in the discipline of Energy Engineering for the purpose of providing skilled manpower to the sector for the efficient use of energy sources, supporting the research and development of new energy sources, and enhancing energy efficiency in general. This area of engineering can be seen as a specialized sub-branch of mechanical engineering.

During the four years of education, the courses given are mostly concentrated on understanding the basic concepts of energy and how to apply them. In this context, courses that will cover all areas of energy are offered at undergraduate and graduate levels; courses such as fundamentals of electric circuits, electromechanical energy conversion, engineering mechanics, heat engineering, power generation and distribution, energy systems laboratory, nuclear energy systems, energy use and management, energy law, energy production, and energy cost. In addition, issues such as the fitting design, the resizing, the production and operation of renewable energy sources like solar, geothermal, wind, hydrogen, bio, and hydraulic energy has started to be offered as part of training programs in the recent years.

In graduate education, one year (ranging from 6 to 8 courses) of preparatory training must be taken if the student has graduated from a different department.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational background for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically in three dimensions and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions.

Graduates of the department can work in the production, use and planning of hydraulic, thermal, nuclear, solar, wind and hydrogen energy and systems; in the design and planning of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems; in technology development, services, industrial and research institutions, research organizations and universities, ministries of Energy and Environment, and in the State Planning Organization (DPT).

Naval Architecture

gemi-insaatiShips are a means of transport that can float in water in a balanced way and that have maneuverability. Since time immemorial, it has been the most important means of transport for people. The Indians living along the River Indus were the first ship builders (The English equivalent of the Turkish word for travelling at sea - navigation - stems from the Sanskrit "navgathi". Over time, boat building methods were developed by other maritime civilizations located in coastal lands.The most important example are the Egyptians and the Chinese. It is known that the Phoenicians were the first to undertake a long journey from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea owing to the building of longer ships that were more stable and with bodies in such a shape that resisted water less.

The only thing that has not changed over the centuries is the fact that the maritime sector remains one of the most important sectors that facilitates countries in their efforts to open up to the world and to have a greater integration with it. Two-thirds of the goods in the world are transported by sea and international maritime organizations play a vital role in global trade.

Why Department of Naval Architecture in Turkey

The shipbuilding industry is a branch of industry that manufactures its products in shipyards based on scientific and technological foundations, with a specific systematical order and discipline combining dozens of products of industrial branches such as machinery manufacturing, electric and electronics, paints, and the iron and steel industry. Due to the diversity of sub-industrial products used in shipbuilding, naval architecture has been the accelerator of the development of other industry branches and has greatly contributed to the development of countries. All of these economic benefits have made the ship-building industry highly esteemed in Turkey.

Shipbuilding industry has boomed due to the increase in the volume of world maritime trade and the demand for new ships as many have been scrapped because of numerous developments in international rules and guidelines. Turkey's shipbuilding industry has become more and more appealing because European shipyards are being forced to close down due to expensive workmanship, because the capacities of the shipyards in the Far East are full, because a need for maintenance and repair of ships will emerge due to heavy ship traffic caused by the Baku-Ceyhan pipeline in the Mediterranean region, and finally on account of the high quality and cheap labor in the Turkish shipbuilding industry and its proximity to Europe. In order to strengthen its position in the world shipbuilding industry, the Turkish Undersecretariat for Maritime Affairs has initiated projects to find new shipyard locations. All these activity and developments in the shipbuilding industry pave the way for a Naval Architecture education that would respond to these needs.

Naval Architecture Education

The duration the Naval Architecture program is four years.During the education, students must undertake practical training at shipyards in order to see the practical application of shipbuilding projects.

Apart from basic science subjects such as mathematics, physics and chemistry, the program also offers courses on ship machinery, ship hydrostatics, ship geometry, manufacturing methods, ship strength, deck equipment, machine dynamics, machine parts, ship propulsion, strength, vessel elements, corrosion and marine pollution, ship power, material knowledge, fluid mechanics, high-speed boats, ship movements and maneuvers, composite materials, ship auxiliary machinery, thermodynamics, ship design, and ship electronic equipment.

These four universities have a Naval Architecture program in Turkey: Istanbul Technical University, Yildiz Technical University, Karadeniz Technical University and Piri Reis University.

Graduates can continue their education at the graduate level. In graduate education, one year (ranging from 6 to 8 courses) of preparatory training must be taken if the student has graduated from a different department.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational background for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically in three dimensions and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions.Why these qualities are sought in the student candidates is that they greatly facilitate them through the basic courses on mathematics, physics, and chemistry given in all engineering departments throughout the program, and through engineering courses such as statics, material, resistance, dynamics, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, and automatic control.

Areas of employment for naval architects are as follows: designing of ships, marines and coastal structures in accordance with international standards and rules; designing of vehicles used to search for and process raw materials at the seabed; planning of economical manufacturing of the said vehicles; planning of production at shipyards and construction sites for marine structures; managing the production process and quality control; repairing, construction and managing of sea vehicles and working at coastal building constructions.

Students who graduate from the program can work as naval architects at public shipyards affiliated with Turkey Ship Industries Inc.; at shipyards that build boats and yachts of varying sizes used in the private sector, or at harbors and in enterprises managed by the Ministry of Transport or the State Planning Organization.

Students who graduate from the program can work at public shipyards, shipyards that construct boat and yachts of varying sizes used in the private sector and harbors and enterprises operating under public institutions.

Food Engineering

gida-muhendisligiFood is the key element in sustaining human life. All societies have taken measures to overcome the problem of hunger throughout history. The degree to which a country's population can meet their food-related needs has always been a major determinant in the duration of its governments. Today, the main task of Food engineering remains the same: Life must go on.

The fields of study in Food Engineering are producing safe and tasty food products with nutritional value and finding new processing techniques and methods by making biochemical, technological, and economic assessments. In this sense, food engineers aim to provide functional products that do not contain chemical residue, are hygienic, nutritious and that range from wheat grown in fields to the food consumed by astronauts.

New technologies that have recently emerged have replaced the heat treatment methods of the past. Computing technology along with automation and process control are the driving forces behind these technological developments. In addition, the diversity of scientific developments in food additives, the discovery of new raw materials that have a protective effect against diseases, production systems aiming at providing food security, intelligent packaging produced by nanotechnology, intelligent food packaging produced by gene technology, genetically modified micro-organisms and seeds, and finally the developments in analytic technology are the important developments recently achieved in this field.

In the future, the increasingly widespread use of nanotechnology in food production will provide products such as milk free of disease-causing bacteria, food that will taste salty even though it contains no salt, taste switching drinks, and packaging that will change its features according to the environmental conditions in order to preserve food better.

Why Department of Food Engineering in Turkey?

All of these developments in the field of Food Engineering are closely monitored by the universities in Turkey. The most important outcome of these projects developed in this new field of research are well-trained engineers and the papers published in international scientific journals.

Monitoring the rapidly developing science of food and food-processing techniques, the interpretation and regulation of this information in accordance with the realities of the country, developing food production techniques specific to the needs of the country and acquiring knowledge that will inform this process, and also spreading these techniques are among the duties of a food engineer. One of the main objectives of Food Engineering is to train competent technical staff and engineers who are well-educated particularly in the science of food and food technology, since they are highly needed by the food industry, which has been developing parallel to the agricultural production in our country.

Food Engineering Education

Undergraduate and graduate programs in the field of Food Engineering provide training in the following areas: producing safe food in terms of high quality and nutritional values; developing new processing techniques by making biochemical, technological and economic assessments; evaluation of raw food materials; preventing the waste of food; recycling wastes to produce new food; multifaceted utilization of raw materials resulting in food diversity.

The duration of the study for Food Engineering is four or five years. Basic engineering courses are taught in the first years of education, and as the education progresses, the training focus shifts to specific fields of Food Engineering such as oil technology, fruit and vegetable technology, meat technology, food packaging materials, the basic processes of molecular biology, microbiology, physical chemistry, organic chemistry, fluid mechanics, mass transfer, heat transfer, engineering thermodynamics, food additives, food processing, modeling, numerical analysis applications, fast food technology, mycotoxigenic molds, food-borne pathogens and food microbiology. Students also go through a practical training in the industry in order to get to know the food industry, obtain information on applications and to gain skills.

Graduates can continue their education at the graduate level. In graduate education, one year (ranging from 6 to 8 courses) of preparatory training must be taken if the student has graduated from a different department.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational background for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically in three dimensions and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions.

Students graduate with the title of "Food Engineer". Food Engineering in its essence is not a branch of science that is solely engaged with manufacturing, nor is it only a supervising body. It is additionally an authorized institution that concerns itself with all stages of food production "from field to plate". It can intervene with the process when needed and has authority for also conducting toxicology risk analysis. In this context, an engineer can work at in-house departments of firms as technical manager taking charge in raw material acceptance, analysis, interpretation of results, the inclusion of raw material in production, solving problems that might occur during and after production, storage conditions and determination of storage lengths, marketing, ensuring standard quality levels, sales, and research and development.

Civil Engineering

insaat-muhendisligiCivil engineering has been around since the beginning of human life. The first examples of civil engineering are the pyramids and ziggurats built in the Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia between BC 4000 and BC 2000. The first place in the world where a civil engineering lesson was ever given - thus marking the emergence of civil engineering as a separate field of science - was a French institution that took the name "National School of Bridges and Highways" after leaving the French Army's Corps of Bridges and Highways in 1747. The first set of courses offered in this school's educational program was hydraulics, machine mechanics, and materials. The Chamber of Civil Engineers was founded in London in 1818, and in 1820 Engineer Thomas Telford became its first president. This institution was royally accepted in 1828 upon the recognition of civil engineering as a profession. At the time, civil engineering was described as follows:

"(Civil engineering) is the art of steering the vast power resources in nature toward the use and benefit of humanity such as in the construction of roads, bridges, canals, and piers for both internal and external trade and internal interactions and shopping; in the construction of harbors, docks, breakwaters, and lighthouses; in the art of circulation powered artificially for the purpose of trade; in the construction and application of machines; in the drainage systems of cities and towns; and as a means of production and transportation in countries.

Why Department of Civil Engineering in Turkey ?

Owing to its highly advanced construction industry, Turkey has been implementing titanic projects both at home and in a large number of foreign countries. The construction sector accounts for 30% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The growth performance of the construction sector is determined 80% by the private sector, and 20% by the public capital investments. Intensive construction works undertaken by Turkish companies in so many regions of the world, and particularly in the Russian Federation, Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Algeria, and Kazakhstan provide ample employment opportunities for civil engineers. In fact, in the last two quarters of 2010, the construction sector came out the fastest growing sector in Turkish economy. Although the project-based incentives of public research centers are limited when it comes to the construction sector, students training to be civil engineers, thanks to the magnitude of the private sector, can easily take part in a large number of major projects, where they can develop themselves.

Civil Engineering Education

In the Civil Engineering graduate and undergraduate education programs, certain departments focus on certain subjects. The Department of Construction Engineering deals with hydraulics in developing transportation and housing, structural and geotechnical design, and issues regarding planning and implementation. The Department of Coastal Engineering is related to the management of coastal areas. For the establishment and operation of harbors, it conducts wave analyses for harbor breakwaters and designs breakwaters. The Department of Transport Engineering improves the designs of secure transportation routes, and constructs roads, highways, railroads, and junctions according to the proper standards. The Department of Hydraulic Engineering is concerned with the construction of waterways and water structures. It conducts static and dynamic analyses of weirs, dams, water pipes, canals, and galleries.

In graduate education, one year (ranging from 6 to 8 courses) of preparatory training must be taken if the student has graduated from a different department.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational infrastructure for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically in three dimensions and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions. Why these qualities are sought in the student candidates is that they greatly facilitate them through the basic courses on mathematics, physics, and chemistry given in all engineering departments throughout the program, and through engineering courses such as statics, material, resistance, dynamics, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, and automatic control.

The work areas of civil engineers may be enumerated as follows: examining the construction plots to prepare appropriate construction plans and projects; finding out the estimated cost of the construction by calculating the costs of the materials and equipment needed for the construction; preparing a tender dossier at the request of the related units in case of major construction projects and putting the project out to tender in accordance with the tender regulations; preparing merit reports after checking the compliance of the tendered works with the project; ensuring the completion of the construction in line with the regulations enjoined by Public Works; acting as an expert regarding construction-related issues. Those who graduate from Civil Engineering departments may be employed in the public and the private sector alike. They can also set up their own companies.

Geological Engineering

jeolojiThroughout history, human beings have made concerted efforts to perceive, interpret and transform their living environment according to their needs. In the first ages, humans were mostly focused on events and objects closely related to the earth. However, the earth has not affected humanity only with its natural resources but with its destructive power as well.

Whether the earth is ultimately viewed as a source of destruction or richness, the science of geology has been developed based on the knowledge of the earth accumulated since time immemorial, and precisely on ways to maximally benefit from it and protect ourselves from its potential damages. Data provided by the science of geology has proved that "the world under our feet is not as solid as it seems" and that "rocks, mountains and even continents are in constant movement."

Geology is an engineering discipline that examines issues related to the structural changes of the earth, the current state of the surface of the earth's crust and its base, and provides education on selection of work sites for any engineering constructions or residential areas.

Why Department of Geological Engineering in Turkey?

Geological Engineering has significantly expanded its range of services in the light of current technological developments. In our country, the increasing number of the measures taken in regard to environment and disaster management in the recent years has enhanced the responsibility of universities in this field. The programs in the geology departments of universities have been redefined to train students at a post-graduate level to equip them with the capability of interpreting disaster management in accordance with geological principles.

Geological engineers assume active roles in determining basic parameters for subsurface openings, groundwater depth, and potential disaster risks; data that may be vital in some urban projects. Land-use plans, selection of building sites for construction, identification of mass movements, sensitivity analysis, and the determination of stabilization measures are geological surveys carried out by geology departments in partnership with public bodies. This partnership is particularly essential in urbanized areas for the future of constructions and human lives. Bilateral agreements with local governments increase the need for qualified geological engineers trained in these areas.

Another important project carried out in Turkish universities is the research on rare minerals. Rare minerals are mainly used as an additive to improve the properties of materials used in the production of electronic devices. Because of their scarcity on earth, research projects run on this subject are of great importance.

Education of Geological Engineering

Some of the areas covered by the Geological Engineering education at undergraduate and graduate levels are mathematics, physics, chemistry, ensuring competence in probability and statistics, training in basic engineering sciences, the determination of natural resources, training in efficient and accurate extraction of natural resources, forming a three dimensional geological model of a project area based on geological data, determining the locations and movements of groundwater, examining and defining the properties of materials that make up the Earth's crust, preparing geological maps, observations, field and laboratory experiments and engineering solutions along with related information systems that would serve the purpose of planning engineering projects. The distribution of physical and chemical properties of the substances in the Earth's crust, founding geographical information systems, and working on remote sensing can also be added to the list.

The Geological Engineering Education in Turkey started within the Faculty of Science of Istanbul University. Today, more than thirty universities have a Geological Engineering department. This department is different from other engineering departments due to the intensity of the non-math contents of its courses. The duration of undergraduate studies is four years.

Graduates can continue their education at the graduate level. In graduate education, one year (ranging from 6 to 8 courses) of preparatory training must be taken if the student has graduated from a different department.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational background for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically in three dimensions and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions.

A geological engineer can work as project manager in the fields of scientific and technical research of natural underground sources such as minerals, petroleum, industrial raw materials, ground water, geothermal energy, the discovery and calculation of the said sources, and the selection of most geologically appropriate locations for urban areas, ports, airports, dams, tunnels and railway passes. Geological engineers work in close cooperation with geophysics and mining engineers in general.

Chemical Engineering

kimya-muhendisligiThe branch of science that examines the interaction between molecules - the smallest unit of matter made up of atoms - how they comprise matter, their electrical loads, and how they disintegrate and move into a new phase is chemistry. It seeks to answer one of the first and probably the most important question of humanity: what is matter and what is it made up of? The first answers reported to us from ancient times belong to pre-Socratic philosophers. Everything that is subject to be physically formed and to decompose and disintegrate is made up of water, air, fire, or earth. Many ways to explain this have been devised since antiquity, nonetheless, the question has remained unchanged. Today, chemists search for answers to the same question: what is matter?

Although Chemical Engineering is mainly based on production processes, the implementation of mathematical models, and laboratory experiments, this question has never ceased to be the central focus of research. According to a definition made by the AIChE (the American Institute of Chemical Engineering) in the 2000s, Chemical Engineering "is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the development and implementation of the processes by which their chemical structures, energy contents, or physical states undergo changes, and a science that performs to a large extent the conversion of raw materials and chemicals into useful and valuable products, and it is based on the fundamental principles and approaches of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and life sciences."

The research areas of a chemical engineer and the tasks expected of him/her may be enumerated as follows: drawing up the business project of an enterprise to be founded in order to produce a specific chemical substance or product in the most economical way; determining the types of the necessary materials and tools for the facility to be established and designing, supervising, and controlling them; constantly monitoring the efficiency of the method utilized during production, and conducting studies to enhance the quality of the product; encouraging and pioneering the development of new materials and production processes as well as that of new advanced technologies in the fields of biotechnology, nanotechnology, and fuel cell technology.

Why Department of Chemical Engineering in Turkey

While meeting the needs of the society, there are certain measures that must be taken that fall under the responsibility of Chemical Engineering such as utilizing limited resources in the best way, developing new and cheap products, designing energy-efficient processes, and minimizing the polluting effects of wastes during the processes of product development, production, usage and disposal. Chemical Engineering has taken on even greater importance in Turkey, where all sectors have embarked on a process of rapid progress.

Turkish chemical industry consists mainly of facilities that manufacture various chemical raw materials and consumer goods such as petrochemicals, cosmetics, detergents, fertilizers, pesticides, paints, varnishes, synthetic fibers, and food additives. Projects to be developed through new investments to be made in these areas are planned in a way so as to incorporate all the new technological advancements thanks to TUBITAK and other government incentives. The great possibilities in the Chemical Engineering labs of universities provide researches with a good infrastructure to rely on in the field. By means of these opportunities presented by departments of Chemical Engineering in Turkey, students can work in large-budget projects.

Chemical Engineering Education

During the first two years of a four-year engineering education, the curriculum consists mainly of engineering courses. The main objective in the theoretical lectures and laboratory studies in Chemical Engineering education is to equip students with the ability to apply math, science and engineering knowledge on chemical engineering problems, define and solve engineering problems in chemical engineering and related fields, analyze any chemical-based process and design related experiments, collect data, conduct analysis, and interpret everything as a whole.

After the second year in the four years of education, research fields are divided into sub-departments, which also offer master's and doctoral programs. These departments are analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry.

At the graduate level, if the department applied to is different from one's major, for instance, a candidate coming from Food Engineering applies to Industrial or Chemical Engineering, this student is required to receive preparatory training (often varying between six or eight courses) upon being accepted.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational background for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically in three dimensions and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions. The reason these qualities are sought in the applicants is that they greatly facilitate them through the basic courses on mathematics, physics, and chemistry given in all engineering departments throughout the program, and through engineering courses such as statics, material, resistance, dynamics, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, and automatic control.

Among the areas Chemical Engineering graduates can work in are medicine, food, plastics, paints, petrochemicals, metals, glass, ceramics, quality chemicals, energy, automotive, plastics and coatings, and the fertilizer industry.

Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering

petrol-muhendisligiHerodotus mentions the leaks of "stone oil" (petroleum) that he saw on the Tunisian and Greek islands around BC 450. As Roman chemist Phiny maintained, this "stone oil" was good for many diseases. Stone oil was additionally used in Antiquity as water insulating material and as a burning agent in wars. Petroleum was made into and used as asphalt and oil until mid-19th century. Oil gained increasing importance in the aftermath of World War I especially owing to the prevalence of motor cars and other types of motor vehicles that increased the need for it.

The leviathan transition from oil used as a medicine to oil as an energy source that sustains today's technology also points to the great change experienced in the balance of power in the world. Oil is in many areas of our lives from plastic to agricultural sector. In this wide range of use, Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering is involved in locating, producing, transporting, storing, and marketing natural resources such as oil, gas, coal gas, steam, and water that have accumulated in the pores and crack systems of underground rock structures.

Why Department of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering in Turkey

Although Turkey is not a major producer of energy, it is situated near the regions with the greatest oil and natural gas reserves in the world, and on account of this closeness it has an important position in the world energy sector. It is part of ongoing joint oil and natural gas projects with the countries in these regions.

In parallel with the rising rate of industrialization and the population growth, it is surmised that Turkey's energy consumption will have increased by 30 % by 2030. The aim of meeting this need encourages national and international companies to invest more in research and development processes. It has been planned for the oil industry to develop projects and cooperate with universities in the areas of deep-water exploration, drilling and production, methods of increasing oil production from fractured reservoirs in order to prevent oil leakage are being explored as well as analyzing production data, and estimating stochastic reserves.

The rapidly growing oil and natural gas sector is in need of qualified human resources. The level of the education in Oil and Natural Gas Engineering departments, which are the primary institutions to meet this need, is at the desired standards on account of their experience coming from working hand in hand with the sector, and of participating in projects carried out on national and international scales.

The recent increase in oil and gas exploration activities in Turkey also seems to be an important opportunity in this field for the up-and-coming generation of engineers due to the fact that Turkey has been meeting most of its energy needs through import. The storage and handling of the oil brought in from neighboring countries and transferred through Turkey, and its transfer to European countries are done through projects developed and implemented by engineers trained in Turkey.

Education of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering

The work areas of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineers determine the content of their training: detecting locations that have oil and natural gas and the magnitude of their reserves; researching the geological samples found in areas whose geological and geophysical assessments have been made, and evaluating the obtained data; doing research to develop methods of extracting oil and natural gas; production with the use of heat and chemical methods; preparing projects about the storage and transfer of crude oil and natural gas.

The undergraduate program in Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering is four years. The first two years, basic science courses such as mathematics, physics, and chemistry and basic engineering courses outnumber all the other courses in the curriculum. In the final two years, vocational courses become dominant. These are courses such as those on Drilling Engineering, Petroleum Production Engineering, Petroleum Reservoir Engineering, Petroleum Geology Principles, Natural Gas Engineering, and Petroleum Economics. Education is conducted both theoretically and practically. Practical training is mandatory. Practical training is undergone in drilling techniques and production and / or reservoir engineering. Those who complete this education is given the title of "Petroleum and Gas Engineer."

Graduates can continue their education by pursuing a post-graduate degree in this field. In graduate education, one year (ranging from 6 to 8 courses) of preparatory training must be taken if the student has graduated from a different department.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational background for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically in three dimensions and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions.

Graduates can work in areas such as the drilling, production, and storage of underground fluids like oil, natural gas, and water, and designing and constructing pipelines, in addition to geothermal energy exploration and production. They can work in the Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO). The TPAO has made signification contributions to the growth of the sector in Turkey, and it has very successful business operations in the field of oil and natural gas in many countries such as Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. Some of the other national and international institutions / companies they can work for are: Petroleum Pipeline Corporation (BOTAŞ), the Directorate General for Oil Affairs (PİGM), Schlumberger, Shell, Aramco, Alaadin Middle East, and BP Gas.

Architecture

mimarlikArchitecture is an enterprise as old as man's existence on Earth, and it has thus developed simultaneously with him. It is a field that is unfailingly mentioned in all sorts of narratives about human history. In this regard, architecture is considered as a container that surrounds / encompasses man physically, biologically, and socially starting from the sheltering needs of the very first human being on Earth. What makes it possible to ponder this container thoroughly and take concrete actions to make contributions to it is the field of architecture.

One of the major fields of science through which societies and civilizations have expressed themselves and which they have handed down to future generations is architecture. The very first type of knowledge that stands right before us, that we can touch in an effort to understand the past in this present segment of time is architecture.

Architecture does not merely mean the activity of constructing a building. It also signifies a social condition, and every social issue, aspect or quality (that involves buildings) involves architecture as well. In any architectural undertaking, the people involved must be in full cognizance of the necessary philosophical approaches, sociological data, and the human's biological, physiological, and mental needs. If we are to put this from a reverse angle; architecture is a tool to appreciate and comprehend existence, man, and society, and to build something based on the resulting knowledge. Architecture, whereby perception and construction, thought and action, and the concrete and the abstract are expressed together in unison, lies at the intersection of social sciences and natural sciences in the modern sense.

The most tangible and essential works ever produced by humankind are architectural ones. In the words of the famous Turkish architect Turgut Cansever, "Architecture is a discipline that regulates and informs the relationship between human being and existence."

Why Department of Architecture in Turkey?

In terms of architecture, Turkey is an extremely convenient spot with its historical, physical, intellectual and artistic richness. The architectural knowledge and experience that accumulated in Anatolia Before Christ, and the contributions made to it by the Romans, the Byzantines, the Anatolian Seljuks and principalities, the Ottomans and the Republican era have given rise to the world's most diverse and rich geography of architecture. For this reason alone, studying architecture in Turkey presents an opportunity to behold and benefit from a great number of rich architectural works.

A second but an equally important fact is the 150 years of academic tradition inherited from the Ottoman culture and enriched in the Republican period. There are nearly 60 departments of architecture scattered across Turkey.

Architectural Education

In Turkey, and in the world, there are roughly five sub-divisions of research and application in the discipline of architecture. These five departments, which are essential in grasping in greater depth what architecture is, are not disconnected from each other. On the contrary, it is a must to have maximum knowledge on each of these five sub-divisions to achieve an overall mastery in the discipline of architecture. Moreover, more specific departments have emerged from the intersection of the main areas.

Department of History of Architecture: It has a curriculum that examines concrete products of architecture on a scale that ranges from the beginnings of man to the present time, investigates the basic dynamics of architectural historiography, which has differed in different eras and in line with individual cases, and associates intellectual trends, historical situations, and current readings of history with general historical narratives.

Building Information Department: It deals with the clarity of the architectural design of a building. The program investigates current constructing practices in a global sense and focuses on the relationship between theory and practice. The training process has courses and applications such as form, function, color, texture, and environment-behavior models in architecture, psychological factors, and so on, which are all issues that affect the design.

Department of Building Technology: It aims at taking a closer look at the concrete structural and technological aspects of architecture. It is an area of research that particularly focuses on the strength of the structure, its statics, power of resistance, the operating logic of its building elements such as wall, floor, and roof, the structure that will be constructed with a mixture of traditional techniques and new technologies in most cases, the construction, and the problems, limitations and the full range of the building materials.

Department of Restoration: It deals with the methods, materials, and technologies that pertain to the maintenance and preservation of old buildings and how they can be handed down to future generations. In this sense, its basic target is the social, economic and operational sustainability of old buildings.

Department of Urbanization: Although there is the distinct department of "Urban and Regional Planning", this department lives on as a sub-division of the Department of Architecture under the same name. The curriculum is largely based on lectures and seminars such as urban design, urban accessories, transportation systems, and the adaptation of the building to its immediate vicinity, large-scale architectural decisions, planning, and urban and regional law.

The basic courses in departments of architecture are project workshops. The workshop classes with the most credits and the biggest workload are Architectural Project, Structure and Implementation Project, Relief and Restoration Project, and Urban Planning & Design Project, all of which must be successfully completed. All of the knowledge acquired from courses such as architectural history, architecture and art theories, restoration techniques, urban theories, physical environment information, materials, construction elements, and from other theoretical and practical courses as well as the knowledge the student will gain from his own research and observations become part of the data dealt with in these workshop classes.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

Students wishing to study architecture must be successful in the fields of mathematics, physics and drawing. In addition, they must be able to think in three dimensions and have a strong drawing ability.

Graduates of architecture can work in a variety of positions in public and private organizations since they receive basic architectural, art and design training. They graduate with skills that allow them to think logically and with an inclination for interdisciplinary group studies. Because they can open their own private offices, they have the opportunity to make their own world views physically visible. Graduates can also pursue an academic career in the master's and doctoral programs.

Mining Engineering

maden-resim01Mining has been one of the main areas that have shaped civilizations throughout history. The importance of coal and iron in the dizzying progress of the development of humanity in the last two hundred years, ever since the industrial revolution, is undeniable. In the present century, mining activities are making important contributions in sustaining of human life.Today, just about anything essential for our lives - from the cars we use to the houses we live in and to computers and telephones - is produced using raw materials extracted as a result of mining activities. Communities need to take advantage of the underground riches to meet their basic needs.

Economically valuable minerals that have formed with various internal and external factors in some parts of the earth's crust are called mines. Mining engineers' responsibility is to plan, manage and carry out studies regarding security at workplace, search for ore in raw materials and coal deposits in various ways (galleries, wells, drilling, geophysics etc.), to determine the location and extent of the underground or surface excavations and to make sure that the ore is processed and enriched in a safe, environmentally-friendly way. These studies are carried out to meet the needs of various sectors of industry for raw materials while developing projects that would aim at minimizing cost and pollution and optimizing/increasing workplace security.

Why Department of Mining Engineering in Turkey?

Turkey is a country with a rich diversity of minerals. There are 90 kinds of tradable minerals in the world and Turkey produces about 60 of them. Sixty-three percent of the world's reserve of boron is in Turkey and it is Turkey's number-one mineral among its richest mines. Other minerals include perlite, pumice, feldspar, bentonite, barite, magnesite, halite, trona, strontium salts, zeolite, sepiolite, marble, quartzite, sand, bauxite and lignite. Furthermore, Turkey is a country rich in some rare minerals. Important areas of study have opened in Turkey as rare metals became important in the production of electronic circuits. Turkish mining sector is experiencing a major breakthrough as private sector in the country becomes associated with foreign manufacturers and due to country's rich mineral deposits.

Issues like ethics, social responsibility, sharing, sustainability, CO2 and global warming, water and energy conservation, entrepreneurship, and creativity dominate the agenda of the 21stcentury. New approaches in these areas are closely monitored by Turkey's leading universities, and training programs are restructured accordingly. One the most important objectives of Turkish universities is to educate students with the vision of the 21stcentury.

Education of Mining Engineering

Mining Engineering Department has three divisions: Management of Mining Operations, Mine Mechanization and Technology, Mineral Processing.Department of Mining covers topics such as excavation, reinforcement, ventilation, transport and feasibility needed to carry out mining exploration and excavation of ore deposits. Mine Mechanization and Technology Department is about cutting theories and mining machines. Department of Mineral Processing, however, is concerned with the upgrading of raw ore quality and preparation procedures for further processing. Undergraduate and graduate education in Mining Engineering departments provide training on general definition of ores, classification of ore deposits, sampling, core sampling, ore reserve calculations, basic excavation methods, machinery and equipment, underground fortifications, current legal issues regarding mining in Turkey, and factors affecting the feasibility of mining and mineral plants.

In the graduate education, one year (ranging from 6 to 8 courses) of preparatory training must be taken if the student has graduated from a different department.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational level for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically in three dimensions and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions.

Graduates are employed in areas of ceramic, glass and cement factories, marble and natural stone quarry operations, mineral exploration, feasibility and evaluation studies, and tunnels and underground works. In addition, they can work as consultants or technical supervisors for all kinds of mining activities.

Industrial Engineering

endustriSince the times when it became possible to develop large systems (in the field of production), the biggest challenge to be dealt with has remained efficiency. The fact that these systems are made up of many sub-components that are interconnected at various levels requires a redefinition of what really underlies the notion of efficiency. While it is possible to determine the functionality of any single vehicle or machine by examining several variables, deciding on what criteria to use is a prominent problem when it comes to integrated structures. The determination of the weight and effectiveness of any structure within the system suggests itself as a separate area of research. Processes of mass production, or industrialization to be precise, caused this area of research to emerge as an independent field, and therefore gave its name to this new branch of engineering.

Industrial Engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the management of the establishment and maintenance of integrated systems consisting of human, materials and machines. It is an endeavor toward acquiring the knowledge of how and through which variables the sub-units making up the whole system will impact on the system; in other words, it is an attempt to make an otherwise vague process take on a particular meaning. This branch of engineering combines the specialized knowledge and skills in mathematics, natural sciences and social sciences with the methods of engineering analysis and design principles, and establishes and evaluates the results to be obtained from these combinations. In addition, by employing an interdisciplinary approach, it carries out studies to improve the quality of engineering services and the efficient use of the most essential sources like time, money, materials, and energy.

As with many other branches of engineering, the first real advances achieved in Industrial Engineering correspond to the time when computer technologies started to make huge strides. Recently developed mathematical approaches (non-linear models, numerical solution methods) and advanced programming techniques in computer technologies (databases and data processing, genetic algorithms, expert artificial intelligence applications) have made it easier to solve complex systemsthus Industrial Engineering has thus gained a new dimension.

Why Department of Industrial Engineering in Turkey

The increased number of large-scale projects being undertaken by Turkish companies both at home and abroad in recent years increases the demand for talented industrial engineers. This demand is taken notice of by universities, and therefore many leading Turkish universities are able to accordingly re-arrange and improve their industrial engineering programs with all the current approaches and methods of solution. It can be easily argued that the branch of engineering with the most advanced ties to the industry is Industrial Engineering.

Industrial Engineering Education

Many universities in Turkey currently have Industrial Engineering departments. Just like other engineering departments, the undergraduate program in Industrial Engineers is four years. In addition to the basic engineering courses, the main courses of the department are Operations Research, Modeling and Optimization Methods, Production Planning and Control, Supply Chain Design, Management and Organization, Quality Management, Work Study, Human Resource Management, Entrepreneurship and Feasibility Studies, Management and Information Systems, and Stochastic Modeling of Industrial Engineering.

At the graduate level, if the department applied to is different from one's major, for instance, a candidate coming from Mechanical Engineering applies to Industrial Engineering, this student is required to receive preparatory training (often varying between six to eight courses).

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

To determine the level of the necessary educational background for entry into all engineering departments in Turkey, student candidates are tested for their mathematical and scientific skills and knowledge. Other criteria taken into account prior to a four-year engineering program are the ability to think analytically in three dimensions and an aptitude for mechanical systems and mathematical expressions. The reason these qualities are sought in the applicants is that they greatly facilitate them through the basic courses on mathematics, physics, and chemistry given in all engineering departments throughout the program, and through engineering courses such as statics, material, resistance, dynamics, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer, and automatic control.

Industrial Engineering is most often a process by which problems are identified, solutions are generated, and decisions are made. Industrial engineers make designs according to this definition. The designs in question are made by Industrial engineers under two general names: "manufacturing systems design" and "controlling production systems."

Work areas where Industrial engineers are most likely to be employed are: Production Planning and Control, Work Study, Investment Planning, Manpower Planning, Work Place Adjustments, Project Management, Job Evaluation, Compensation Systems, and Management Information Systems.