## Sciences

Statistics

Collecting data toward a particular end, processing these data through mathematics and programming sciences, analyzing it with graphics, charts, and other visual materials, monitoring inter-correlations of the collected data (their interrelations) and forecasting applications all fall within the remit of statistics. Statistics, in a sense, may be likened to journalism; you follow the traces of things and you reach a result, and that result is a newsworthy piece of information.What renders it different from journalism is the attempts to attain objective results based on numbers. Statistics can be defined as a theoretical science intended to be used for practical purposes.

Statistics is a science needed by almost all branches of science. Social disciplines like sociology and psychology as well as sciences such as medicine, economics, business administration, actuarial (insurance), mathematics, and physics are all in need of statistics. In addition, there are statistical authorities of all states. These institutions determine the policies of states by continuously collecting statistics and keeping reports of them, and they also function as a feedback mechanism by assessing and measuring what has been done so far in addition to what was not possible to do. For example, it is in reality through official statistical agencies that we find out about the results of population censuses, literacy rates, unemployment data, and import and export figures; information that we normally get from television or newspapers. In the light of these statistics, states may decide to implement drastic policy changes. For example, by looking at the statistics that reveal a rise in inflation a government may launch economic reforms, or it may take steps to improve health conditions by looking at the statistics showing an increase in the infant mortality rate. International institutions produce statistics on countries and prepare scorecards for them based on the gathered data. For example, human development index examines countries' attitudes toward human rights and publishes its statistical findings.

Just like states, most commercial enterprises such as research companies, banks, and stock exchanges make adjustments in their policies for the future of their own institutions by using statistics, thereby also weighing out whether their actions so far were in the right direction. Statistics is an indispensable science particularly in the field of economics.

Why Department of Statistics in Turkey?

Parallel to the great improvements it has recently achieved in the social and economic spheres, Turkey is rapidly heading towards an ambitious position in the field of higher education too. Most of our well-established universities have statistics departments. Students wishing to pursue an academic career in the science of statistics are offered masters and doctoral programs in the field.

Turkey's active and dynamic population and its performance mean that there is a great need for the science of statistics. The reason is, with every passing decade the country undergoes major changes, and these changes can be understood and evaluated through the contributions made by the science of statistics. Aware of this great need, our universities attach the due importance and attention to the statistics departments.

The Turkish Statistical Institute working under the Prime Ministry dates back to the beginning of the 19th century. Actually going back to the 14th century, Turkey's statistical experience was first formalized with the census of 1830. Turkey's growing success in the field of statistics comes from its statisticians trained in its own universities.

Statistical Training

The following subjects are taught in the statistics departments in Turkey:
The course of probability(in fact a course of mathematics), that aims at teaching theories of probability; the course of the basics of statistics that serves as an introduction to the science of statistics; the course of Calculus in which mathematical concepts such as limit, derivative, integral, and vectors that are commonly used in statistics; courses like C, or C++ that aim to teach students of statistics at least one programming language; and analytical geometry given to teach coordinate systems and its related applications. Among the courses given in addition to these are Information Technology and Applications, Report Writing Techniques, Statistical Methods, Statistical Calculations, Mathematical Statistics, Linear Algebra, Differential Equations, Data Analysis, and Regression Analysis.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

Statistics is a department for the student who loves mathematics. As is understood from the courses mentioned just above, mathematics occupies a very large space in statistics. However, statistics, as distinct from mathematics, reaches practical results since it examines concrete data through abstract tools. For example, a statistician who has obtained the unemployment rate of the last five months through a set of calculations processes the various groups of data he/she has gathered from various sectors to reach a result, analyzes them and compares them to a previous set of results. As is the case with most sciences, statistics takes patience and perseverance too. Nevertheless, statistics is an exciting and enjoyable science as it is a direction-setting field that is constantly needed.

The graduates of statistics departments have the opportunity to be employed in national and international public and private companies. In addition to public institutions, research companies, banks, stock exchanges, and in short most commercial entities comprise the essential working areas of statistics graduates.

Physics

Physics is the basic science that investigates the laws governing the formation and functioning of the universe and the science that enables the implementation of these laws. Physics, with this feature, facilitated the birth and development of the classical engineering fields such as construction, machine, and electricity, and then the contemporary engineering fields such as geology, mining, electronics, computer, chemical, food, and environment in the natural development process of history of science. In addition, physics has been pioneering in the areas developing in ways that will create new areas of engineering in the future such as superconductivity, photonics, and biophysics. From this perspective, science of physics has a competence to form and develop all the engineering fields that emerged up to this date and will emerge after this date. Applied Physics is also a field of engineering with its quality to transfer universal laws that it reaches through research into application by means of measurable quantities. Even though there are contributions from other science and engineering fields, many advanced technology products that entered into our daily life today such as transistors, lasers, computers, radars, planes, telescopes, and satellites are largely the works of physicists and physics engineers.

Why the Department of Physics in Turkey?

Physics as the main branch of basic sciences has contributed greatly to the achievement of high technology in the current era. Physics primarily aims to find the laws of nature and the information acquired in doing so is then transformed into technological applications. Given that the technological development in Turkey is expected to increase in decades to come, the need for people trained in the field of Physics will become immediately clear. An important part of the financial support given by the state to research projects directly concerns people trained themselves in the field of Physics.

Department of Physics in many universities in Turkey provides education under Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Education in Physics Engineering is provided only in five universities. First Department of Physics Engineering was established in Ankara University under Faculty of Sciences in 1954. In addition to this, departments of Physics Engineering are located in Hacettepe, İstanbul Technical, Gaziantep, and Gümüşhane universities.

Physics Education

Education in departments of Physics / Physics Engineering is four years in length. In addition to the theoretical and basic topics such as nuclear physics, atomic-molecular physics, solid state physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic, applied topics such as technical drawings, electronics, computer programming, machine elements, materials, waves-vibrations, thermodynamics, spectroscopy, crystallography, medical physics (visualization systems), and engineering topics such as optics, thin-film, and laser are covered.

Research areas of the Department of Physics can be summarized as follows: General Physics studies issues such as renewable energy sources, new materials, environmental physics, and meteorology. High Energy Physics is concerned with theoretical and phenomenological issues in basic interactions, models, experimental studies to strengthen bonds, and participation in international experimental in projects. Electronics, software, computing with computers, groups doing experimental studies on laser and energy issues should be included in this category. Mathematical Physics covers research planned under the gravitation and basic theories of interaction and studies on the generalization of the work on motion of point particle on the curve to the movement of a string on the surface. It does research on black hole, black string, and other analytical solutions of the super-gravity theories that are doubled with substance in three dimensions. Nuclear Physics works in areas such as nuclear interactions and structures, and reactor design and safety. Astrophysics focuses on areas such as neutron stars, observatories, satellites, detectors, star structures, and pollution of the space. Topics such as new devices (their physics, materials, and inspection), mesoscopic physics, nanophysics, superconductivity, optoelectronics, lasers, crystals, new materials, and the physics of photosynthesis are studied within the scope of Condensed Matter Physics. Atomic and Molecular Physics is concerned with lump structures, nanophysics, X-ray physics, and plasma applications. Plasma Physics is concerned with the fusion (experimental and theoretical), plasma processes and industrial applications, particle accelerator in plasma environment, numerical solution of the wave equation in optical guides.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

Levels in mathematics and science determine the necessary educational background upon arrival of all the departments of basic sciences that provides education in Turkey. Additionally, analytical thinking, inclination for mathematical expressions and mechanical systems, and the ability to think in three dimensions are important in Physics education. In Master's degree education, if the department that was applied different than the one that was graduated, scientific preparatory training (usually varies between 6 and 8 courses) must be received.

"Physicist" is the title given to those who have completed the program in Physics. A physicist's job can be summarized as to resolve the problem to be investigated, select the research method, conduct the experiment, and to report the result. In their studies, physicists benefit from other disciplines to a large extent. Physicists collaborate with engineers working in the industry.

Graduates of the department may choose academic life by continuing to graduate education. Otherwise, they can be employed in various fields such as various government agencies, research and development centers, organizations working in the field of electronics and defense industries, medical centers, public and private educational institutions, computer companies, technical equipment sales and service companies, and banks.

Mathematics

Mathematics is one of the world's oldest and most common sciences. It is considered to be a branch of science hard to learn because it often requires thinking in fully abstract concepts. In fact, mathematics should not be seen as a branch of science because mathematics is a language; we accept it as a science to make it easily understood. Same as Turkish and English, mathematics is a language that has symbols, connectors, letters, words, and sentences. We can write and talk with the language that we use in common sense; mathematics serves the sentences that we form by bringing symbols together to the other sciences as a meaningful whole. We use Turkish in physics, chemistry, biology, statistics, astronomy, engineering, medicine, architecture, economics, science, and in a similar way the language of mathematics is used in many branches of science. In addition, music is a miraculous art that makes use of mathematical language. In fact, musical terms such as octave and beats come from mathematics.

Mathematics has been a valued branch of science throughout the ages. We believe the famous sentence "Ageometretos medeis eisito!" that Plato wrote in the entrance of his academy means "Those who don't know Geometry cannot enter here!". In fact, this sentence means "Those who can't grasp what is Mathematical cannot enter". So, everything that is happening in the universe is valuable to the extent that it is understood with a mathematical comprehension. In this respect, Mathematics and philosophy are like brothers. Many of the philosophers are mathematicians or know math very well. Leibniz is a great philosopher and also an important mathematician who made very important discoveries.

Why the Department of Mathematics in Turkey?

Turkish universities, which trained many esteemed scientists with the support of the cultural and scientific heritage that they had, has also trained mathematicians who had a voice in the world in the discipline of mathematics. Cahit Arf has made important discoveries with the "Arf Invariant" and "Arf rings" concepts that have entered into the literature. Cem Yalçın Yıldırım has a respectable reputation in the world with his work on the twin prime numbers. On the other hand, Ali Nesin works for the popularization of mathematics in Turkey with the Mathematics Village that he established and works towards the training of good mathematicians. Additionally, he also publishes articles of the Turkish mathematicians in the journal of The World of Mathematics.

Mathematical education in the universities of our country is of high quality and of global standards, especially when considering the contributions of Cahit Arf's heritage, Ali Nesin, Cem Yalçın Yıldırım and many valuable current mathematicians. The master's and doctoral programs invite graduates with Bachelor's degree in mathematics who want to specialize in Mathematics and make a contribution to mathematical research. Students can qualify for a master's or doctoral education after passing one foreign language proficiency exam (Foreign Language Exam-YDS, TOEFL, IELTS or foreign language proficiency exams that universities opened) and ALES-Academic Personnel and Postgraduate Education Entrance Exam, which is followed by the interviews universities hold.

Mathematics Education

Departments of Mathematics are present in almost all of our universities. These departments are found in both the state universities and private universities with many professors doing scientific research and collecting rewards.

Several major scientific branches of the discipline of mathematics are as follows: Analysis and Functions Theory, Algebra and Number Theory, Geometry, Topology (Cluster Formation in the Universe, Spaces), Applied Mathematics, Calculus (Fundamentals of Mathematics), Cryptography (Encryption Sciences), and Mathematical Logic.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

When we look at the overall profile of mathematics students, we see that the vast majority consciously choose mathematics because students who decide to study mathematics want to learn a new language and a new way of thinking. They will think in numbers by entering into a completely abstract world and, ultimately, will try to understand that everything, from largest organisms in the universe down to the smallest, has a mathematical systematic. Alternatively, as indicated by Plato, they will try to "comprehend" with the ability to think analytically that they acquire. Only a student who wants to engage in mathematics will be able to enter the world of this different and interesting discipline. In short, a student who wishes to study mathematics should love math and work patiently to open the doors that mathematical language will bring along. Therefore, the three needed requirements to study in this department can be listed as patience, love of mathematics, and practice.

Graduates of Department of Mathematics can engage in academic studies and can work in a lot of careers in the private sector and public sector. In general, individuals who receive mathematics education can find jobs in almost every field and, especially, become successful in organizational and managerial jobs because of the ability to think analytically that they gain. A good mathematician can also be a good programmer. In addition, they can carry out critical tasks in the field of cryptography (encryption science) in military units. Banking, finance, and statistical agencies look for and employ graduates trained in mathematics. Graduates of Mathematics who complete pedagogical formation can work as a math teacher.

Chemistry

Although the field of chemical science goes back only a couple of centuries, the human knowledge it is based upon has a history of over five millennia. Chemistry emerged out of alchemical endeavors to turn ordinary substances into precious stones.

The science of chemistry examines the properties and structures of matters, the relationships between them, and their transformation, and it seeks to identify the rules by which this transformation takes place. It also conducts research on how these matters are and should be used in production.

Why Department of Chemical Engineering in Turkey?

The department of Chemistry, which is crucial to emerging technologies, is an attractive option for prospective college students. Unlike most other disciplines, it is a basic science that has an industry of its own. Turkey, with its high-quality chemical products, has a leading position amongst countries with advanced chemical industries. This leading position of Turkey has contributed to the chemistry education in the country and enhanced its quality.

Chemistry is one of the oldest departments in Turkey. As a result of a reform in the House of Sciences (Dâr al-Fünûn) in 1914, three German chemists - Dr. Fritz Arndt (Inorganic Chemistry), Dr. Kurt Hoesch (Organic Chemistry), and Dr. Gustav Fester (Industrial Chemistry) - were invited and appointed as professors in 1917, and in the same year the Institute of Chemistry was founded with the purpose of training industrial chemists.

Chemistry Education

Chemistry departments of Turkish universities offer education at undergraduate and graduate levels. Qualitative analysis, analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry and biochemistry are among the fundamental courses of the department.

Although there are many subbranches of chemistry, some of them are more prominent than the rest. And these are Biochemistry, which examines the chemicals, chemical reactions and their interactions in living organisms; Inorganic Chemistry, which examines the reaction of inorganic compounds and their characteristics; Physical Chemistry, which deals with the dynamics and energetics of reactions; Organic Chemistry, which examines the reactions of carbon-containing compounds; Pharmaceutical Chemistry, which examines the design and synthesis of the substances used in the healthcare industry; Polymer Chemistry, which examines and synthesizes polymers, which consist of large molecules and major physical and chemical characteristics; and Medical Chemistry, which examines the use of chemical substances in medical treatment.

Chemistry students can have a double major in their universities in the departments of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Chemical Engineering, or Physics.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

In order to have a successful training in the department of Chemistry, a student must be sufficiently competent at chemistry, mathematics, and physics and have the ability for analytical thinking.

Chemistry graduates can work in the textile industry, especially in the field of painting, the food industry, whose importance has been on the rise in the whole world, the cosmetics industry, in the production of detergents and cleaning products such as soap, the paper industry, the production of ink for printers and pens, the ceramic industry, paint and coating, water treatment systems, plastic industrial enterprises, ore enrichment plants, fuel-energy and petrochemical plants, plants manufacturing specialty chemicals, reactor design, process control, biotechnological purification, and environmental technology. They can also work in the pharmaceutical industry, medical laboratories, health sciences, artificial bone, tissue and prosthetic production, the production of long-acting antibiotics, and in the production of active ingredients in chemotherapy.

Biochemistry

Biochemistry is an interdisciplinary branch of science that studies the organization and functions of biological structures at a molecular level. Biochemistry, therefore, investigates the chemical structures of the components in living organisms, the biological functions of these structures, the metabolism, that is, whole sets of non-stop constructive and destructive chemical activities in a living being, organic substances such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, and vitamins and hormones. In short, biochemistry analyzes biochemical reactions, which are considered as the basis of symptoms of vitality, the substances that store and transmit biological information, and the chemical composition of living things.

The objective of biochemistry is to conduct research and education on subjects that relate to biological sciences, health sciences, nutrition, and environmental phenomena. It is closely related to a large number of scientific fields, such as medicine, biology and health sciences, organic chemistry, biophysics, the medical science, the science of food and nutrition, microbiology, physiology, cytology, and genetics. It benefits from organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, physiology, biology and microbiology. It also utilizes experimental methods and tools.

A biochemist does research on nutrition, the effects of genetic drugs, the chemical changes that result from diseases and small organisms that lead to the formation of diseases. It is a biochemist's job to conduct studies in order to produce various biochemical substances, in a lab environment, such as protein, blood serum protein, amino acid, and organic acid. This job also involves the preparation of cell and tissue cultures, the analysis of the effects of chemical and biological contaminants on organisms, and carrying out studies on food chemistry and technology, fermentation, food microbiology, food hygiene and a healthy diet.

Why Department of Biochemistry in Turkey?

Already one of today's most popular fields of science, biochemistry will become increasingly important in the future since it is one of the basic sciences employed in all biological, medical, and pharmaceutical research.

Although a field that has only recently begun gaining recognition in Turkey, it is already becoming a valuable academic program whose importance and impact cannot be overlooked. A fact that surely renders this program a very appealing one to students is that the number of biochemical programs in Turkish universities as well as all the rest of the world is small, and this gives their accordingly small number of graduates a better of employment after graduating.

Biochemistry Education

Turkish universities currently offer associate, graduate and post-graduate degrees in biochemistry. Some of the courses at the associate level are biology, microbiology, physiology, histology, inorganic chemistry, and analytical chemistry. The undergrad education, is divided into two sub-branches after the second year as Biochemistry and Chemistry Oriented toward Biotechnology. In accordance with the sub-branch they select, graduates receive the title of Biochemist or Biochemist Oriented toward Biotechnology.

Those who prefer Biochemistry take, as part of the program, courses such as biology, chemistry, physics, organic chemistry, biophysical chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, histology, enzymology, microbiology, chemistry, medicine, nutrition, toxicology, clinical chemistry, genetics, fermentation technology, industrial hygiene, and waste recycling and treatment methods.

The training at the Biochemistry department enables the graduates to establish up-to-date links between biological sciences and other disciplines and to think analytically.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

Applicants who wish to work in the field of biochemistry are expected to be interested in biology and chemistry courses. Patient students with an aptness for mathematics and physical sciences, a curious and inquisitive mind, and willingness to do experiments are more likely to successfully graduate from this program.

Biochemistry graduates have a wide range of job opportunities. They can work in food industry, in the production of pharmaceutical, medical, and chemical substances, in the synthesis of pesticides, in the cosmetics and detergent industries, in industrial fields that heavily depend on fermentation technology, and also in research labs. In addition, graduates of biochemistry carry out tests on health with regard to production processes, develop new testing methods, and participate in their application. Biochemistry students or graduates can also be employed as medical lab teachers if they receive educational formation.

Biology

There are innumerous species of beings in the world, and they cannot survive independently. Therefore, for the basic science of biology, the relationships of these beings to each other and the environment constitute a very important subject of examination.

Biology examines the anatomical and physiological structures of the creatures living in the earth, and how they interact with each other and with the environment. Environmental issues, biological breeding methods, biotechnological studies and advances in medicine further increase the importance of biology. For this reason, it can be said that the future of biology-based sciences in our Turkey and in the world is extremely bright.

Why Department of Biology in Turkey?

Biology departments in Turkey offer their students opportunities for modern biology-based training and research. Biological events and systems are dealt with at the molecular level, and given the universal position of biological sciences, this is the ideal way of approaching this subject.

On the other hand, the increasing number and importance of research and medical laboratories makes Turkey an attractive option for biology education. In light of this, Biology departments in Turkey convey the basic teachings of life sciences to their undergraduate and graduate students as well as scientific teachings, findings, knowledge and experience with which they can aim to identifying the biological riches of Turkey that must be preserved intact for future generations as a world legacy. Identifying the species of plants, animals, and microorganisms, determining their geographical and biological prevalence and their biological structures and how these structures function, shedding light on their genetic structures, finding out the ecological issues that jeopardize them, and generating solutions for these are also concerns for biology education in Turkey.

Biology Education

Having a very wide field of research, biology has a number of prominent basic sub-areas, such as botany, biotechnology, ecology, hydrobiology, molecular biology, and zoology.

Departments of Biology offer education at associate, undergraduate, and graduate levels. The students of the department take courses such as general biology, molecular biology, bio-statistics, plant anatomy and morphology, plant physiology, microbiology, cytology, histology, genetics, animal physiology, biochemistry, and organic chemistry.

Students of Biology can obtain a double major in Genetic Engineering.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

A prospective biology student, first and foremost, is expected to be a curious observer and a patient researcher.

Biology graduates are given the title "biologist". Biologists can work in laboratories, public and private hospitals, IVF laboratories, forensic science, and the production of medicines and pharmaceutical raw materials. They can also be employed in the manufacture and quality control of cosmetic products, food industry, environmental protection, organizations engaged in control and ecological planning, municipal wastewater treatment plants, nuclear plants and enterprises that use radiation, the research and development work and production activities of institutions and organizations engaged in biotechnology, hydrobiological research centers, hydrobiological and R & D activities related to fisheries, and zoological and botanical gardens.

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology and Genetics is one of the recently developed branches of biology that examines living structures, their roles, and relations with each other and with their environment at a molecular level.

Genetics deals with the molecular structure and functions of genes and the characteristics of inheritance in living things while Molecular Biology examines the molecular mechanisms of processes by which genetic information carried in DNA is transformed to sustain life. Whereas biochemistry studies the structures and functions of the biological macromolecules (such as proteins, nucleic acid, carbohydrates, etc.) in these mechanisms. The developments in these closely related fields of sciences have particularly been accelerated through the new methods and techniques offered by the innovations in the fields of computer and engineering.

With the discovery of the fact that DNA carries the genetic code required by inheritance, the whole of the genetic code (genome) of different organisms were deciphered, and in the 2000s, through the Human Genome Projects conducted with the cooperation of various countries, the human genome was deciphered. The results of the project carries great meaning for the diagnosis and treatment of hereditary diseases.

Biotechnology targets the development of different organisms by benefiting from the fields of biology and engineering. Biotechnology plays an essential role in the development of highly productive seeds that withstand harsh conditions, the enhancement of production, the development of microorganisms against environmental waste, the use of DNA analysis in forensics, the development of the pharmaceutical industry, and in the production of medicines and vaccines against diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. Gene therapies, which are given a lot of emphasis recently, aim for identifying genetic mutations and thus offering alternative and definitive treatment methods for diseases stemming from mutations in the genes.

The increasing number of research projects in Molecular Biology and its related fields, and the obtaining of a remarkable amount of raw data render it obligatory to make these data available to scientists and require a more efficient analysis of this raw data. This requirement has given rise to the fields of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology by enabling further cooperation between Molecular Biology and Computer Sciences. In this way, it has become possible to analyze the large amounts of raw data obtained in the laboratory, and to do theoretical and mathematical modeling of biological mechanisms as well as simulate them. Developments in the fields of engineering have similarly contributed to biology.

Why Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics in Turkey

Turkey has researchers in the field of molecular biology and genetics whose work meets international standards. Turkey is a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) and benefits from its economic support and programs. Students studying in this field are eligible to apply for such scholarships in order to do research in the labs of various European universities. In addition, 14 researches from Turkey so far have received the EMBO's research support award, given annually to only a few young and qualified researchers. These researchers make significant contributions in their universities to the education and research activities in the field of Molecular Biology and Genetics. Again, through the economic support of the EMBO, various events are organized to bring together students studying Molecular Biology and Genetics in Turkey and the prominent researchers of the field in Europe.

In accordance with a decision made by the Council for Science and Technology in 2013, giving particular priority to health and medicine-related issues amongst other areas of priority will significantly facilitate the education and research mobilization launched by Turkey in the field of Molecular Biology and Genetics.

Education of Molecular Biology and Genetics

The first Turkish universities to open Molecular Biology and Genetics departments are Bilkent, Bosporus, and the Middle East Technical universities, and the current number of these departments has surpassed 20 country-wide. In some of our universities the same education is given under the name of "Bio-engineering".

Some of the courses offered at the undergraduate level are molecular and cell biology, human physiology and anatomy, physical biochemistry, biophysics, ecology and evolutionary biology, biometry, molecular genetics, biochemistry, microbiology, molecular biology of the gene, molecular biology of the cell, recombinant DNA technologies, and mathematical and computational biology.

At the graduate level, the available programs are as follows: medical biochemistry, medical genetics, human genetics, nucleic acid chemistry, advanced genetics, biotechnology, immunology, developmental biology, neurobiology, biological signal transduction, cell membrane biology, introduction to the stem cell biology, cancer genetics, and cell cycle.

Qualifications Required of Students and Job Opportunities

Students wishing to study in this field must primarily have a sufficient amount of background knowledge on biology, chemistry, mathematics, and computer programming. Also they must be interested in life sciences and have an aptitude for conducting laboratory experiments on cells, microorganisms, tissues, and animals.

Graduates of the field can continue their careers at graduate programs in domestic or foreign universities and research centers. Furthermore, they can work especially in the R & D and Quality Control departments of firms operating in the sectors of medicine, agriculture, food and biomedicine, and also in hospitals, private laboratories, and test tube baby centers. Another kind of the institutions where they can work is international companies that deal in the design and production of equipment used in the field of molecular biology and medicine.

Engin Bermek, Mehmet Öztürk, İvet Bahar, Gökhan Hotamışlıgil, and Aslı Tolun are few among the many Turkish researchers who contribute to the field with their pioneering work.